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Table 5 Comparison between socio-demographic characteristics of mail and Web survey respondents

From: Self-reported data in environmental health studies: mail vs. web-based surveys

Socio-demographic characteristics aAll respondentsMailWebp-value b
SexMale518352 (45)166 (61)< 0.0001
Female546438 (55)108 (39)
Missing211 
Age (years) 59.3 ± 14.560.8 ± 14.955.1 ± 12.7< 0.0001
Missing633 
Smoking statusNo smoker511370 (47)141 (52)0.403
Current smoker158118 (15)40 (14)
Previous smoker351263 (34)88 (32)
Passive smoker3832 (4)6 (2)
Missing880 
Childhood living environmentTown223168 (21)55 (20)0.192
Village428305 (39)123 (46)
Countryside402308 (40)94 (34)
Missing13103 
Years living in the region 35.3 ± 20.736.3 ± 21.032.4 ± 19.60.006
Missing19154 
Period outside of homeShort period (less than 14 days)405317 (41)88 (32)0.010
Medium period (14–55 days)553402 (51)151 (55)
Long period (56 days or more)9863 (8)35 (13)
Missing1091 
EducationElementary school174149 (19)25 (9)0.002
High school3226 (3)6 (2)
College316224 (29)92 (34)
Short or medium higher education (1–4 years)425309 (39)116 (42)
Long higher education (≥ 5 years)10974 (10)35 (13)
Missing1091 
Job situationEmployed533350 (44)183 (66)< 0.0001
Unemployed1611 (2)5 (2)
Out of job market513427 (54)86 (32)
Missing431 
Job positionInformed966707 (89)259 (94)0.019
Not informed10084 (11)16 (6)
  1. a Results are given in mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables (i.e. age and years living in the region) and number (%) for categorical variables
  2. b Determined from two sample t-test (in case of continuous variables) or Pearson’s Chi-squared test (in case of categorical variables)