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Table 7 Attitude towards environmental stressors for mail and Web survey respondents

From: Self-reported data in environmental health studies: mail vs. web-based surveys

Attitude towards stressors a% Mail b% Web bCrude OR [95%CI] c,dAdj. OR [95%CI] d,e
PerceptionNoise22.420.41.13 [0.80–1.58]1.51 [1.04–2.18]**
Odor29.533.10.84 [0.63–1.13]1.07 [0.77–1.47]
Dust6.34.41.48 [0.78–2.82]1.75 [0.87–3.54]
Smoke13.314.80.87 [0.59–1.29]0.98 [0.65–1.49]
Vibration7.09.50.72 [0.44–1.17]0.71 [0.42–1.21]
Overall20.618.51.14 [0.80–1.62]1.38 [0.95–2.01]*
AnnoyanceNoise24.122.91.07 [0.77–1.48]1.43 [1.00–2.05]**
Odor32.237.10.81 [0.61–1.07]0.97 [0.71–1.32]
Dust6.64.41.54 [0.81–2.93]1.93 [0.94–3.97]*
Smoke12.511.31.13 [0.73–1.73]1.14 [0.72–1.79]
Vibration7.07.60.90 [0.54–1.52]0.93 [0.53–1.64]
Overall16.114.51.12 [0.76–1.65]1.32 [0.87–2.00]
Health concernNoise3.54.00.88 [0.43–1.79]1.02 [0.47–2.24]
Odor2.84.70.58 [0.29–1.16]0.67 [0.31–1.46]
Dust4.72.51.88 [0.83–4.26]2.03 [0.87–4.76]*
Smoke5.95.51.09 [0.60–1.99]1.24 [0.66–2.33]
Vibration1.82.50.69 [0.28–1.73]0.86 [0.30–2.46]
Overall11.910.21.19 [0.76–1.86]1.39 [0.86–2.25]
Behavioral interferenceNoise2.50.47.11 [0.95–53.21]*9.51 [1.23–73.47]**
Odor10.76.91.62 [0.97–2.72]*1.82 [1.06–3.13]**
Dust1.10.71.57 [0.34–7.32]2.00 [0.40–10.14]
Smoke3.23.30.96 [0.44–209]1.07 [0.47–2.40]
Vibration0.10.40.35 [0.02–5.56]0.00 [0.00 - Inf]
Overall14.89.51.66 [1.06–2.60]**1.87 [1.16–3.00]**
  1. a The term “environmental stressors” are defined as global conditions of the environment (in this case, noise, odor, dust, smoke and vibration) that may adversely stimulate the central nervous system and, as stressors, require adaptation or coping measurements (Campbell, 1983)
  2. b Indicates the percentage of mail and Web survey respondents that provided positive answers (scores ≥1) for each of the outcomes (i.e. variables that indicate their attitude towards stressors)
  3. c Indicates the odds that mail survey respondents reported a negative attitude towards environmental stressors in comparison to Web survey respondents
  4. d *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05
  5. e Indicates the odds that mail survey respondents reported a negative attitude towards environmental stressors in comparison to Web survey respondents, after controlling for age, sex, education, region where the individual lives (i.e. Anholt, Lindet, Keldsnor and Sundeved), smoking status, childhood living environment, presence of children at home, period spent outside home and job situation