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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of people in the Hong Kong Diabetes Register (HKDR, randomized 2:1 into derivation and validation cohorts) and the Hong Kong Diabetes Surveillance Database (HKDSD). Laboratory and prescription data are from the first year after diagnosis. Values are counts (n) and percentages unless otherwise indicated

From: Development and validation of algorithms to classify type 1 and 2 diabetes according to age at diagnosis using electronic health records

 HKDRHKDSD
CohortTotal
n = 15,297
Missing (n, %)n = 561,924Missing (n, %)
Derivation
n = 10,196
Validation
n = 5101
Age (years; mean, standard deviation)55.7 (11.7)55.6 (11.8)55.7 (11.7)0 (0.0)61.8 (13.2)0 (0.0)
Age < 18 years36 (0.4)28 (0.6)64 (0.4)1577 (0.3)
Age 18–39 years801 (7.9)375 (7.4)1176 (7.7)24,148 (4.3)
Age ≥ 40 years9359 (91.8)4698 (92.1)14,057 (91.9)536,199 (95.4)
Female4488 (44.0)2341 (45.9)6829 (44.6)270,282 (48.1)
Baseline Comorbidities*
 Ischemic heart disease972 (9.5)456 (8.9)1428 (9.3) 49,931 (8.9) 
 Congestive heart failure411 (4.0)196 (3.8)607 (4.0)28,745 (5.1)
 Stroke855 (8.4)426 (8.4)1281 (8.4)54,762 (9.8)
 Peripheral arterial disease125 (1.2)52 (1.0)177 (1.2)5241 (0.9)
 Cancer1071 (10.5)537 (10.5)1608 (10.5)63,510 (11.3)
 Chronic kidney disease1885 (18.5)948 (18.6)2833 (18.5)1 (0.0)125,274 (22.5)6101 (0.0)
 End-stage renal disease133 (1.3)78 (1.5)211 (1.4)8274 (1.5)
Risk Factors (mean, standard deviation unless otherwise indicated)
 A1C (%)7.4 (1.0)7.4 (1.0)7.4 (1.0)17 (0.1)7.2 (1.1)24,485 (4.4)
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)7.7 (1.7)7.7 (1.7)7.7 (1.7)90 (0.6)7.4 (1.8)32,708 (5.8)
 LDL-C (mmol/L)2.5 (0.6)2.5 (0.6)2.5 (0.6)48 (0.3)2.7 (0.7)38,691 (6.9)
 HDL-C (mmol/L)1.3 (0.3)1.3 (0.3)1.3 (0.3)45 (0.3)1.3 (0.3)37,813 (6.7)
 Triglycerides (median, IQR; mmol/L)1.4 (0.9)1.4 (0.9)1.4 (0.9)41 (0.3)1.4 (0.9)34,211 (6.1)
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)79.4 (23.3)79.9 (23.5)79.5 (23.4)1 (0.0)76.3 (23.4)6101 (0.0)
Glucose-Lowering Medications (excluding insulin)
 Metformin9044 (88.7)4540 (89.0)13,584 (88.8) 399,235 (71.0) 
 Sulfonylureas7492 (73.5)3752 (73.6)11,244 (73.5)301,158 (53.6)
 Thiazolidinediones674 (6.6)306 (6.0)980 (6.4)11,414 (2.0)
 DPP-4 inhibitors1945 (19.1)932 (18.3)2877 (18.8)24,529 (4.4)
 GLP-1 agonists32 (0.3)21 (0.4)53 (0.4)319 (0.1)
 SGLT2 inhibitors171 (1.7)79 (1.6)250 (1.6)1381 (0.2)
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor347 (3.4)159 (3.1)506 (3.3)7885 (1.4)
Insulin (n, %)
 Long-acting505 (5.0)232 (4.6)737 (4.8) 7260 (1.3) 
 Intermediate-acting2903 (28.5)1397 (27.4)4303 (28.1)54,859 (9.8)
 Short-acting1337 (13.1)630 (12.4)1967 (12.9)58,096 (10.3)
 Premixed907 (8.9)430 (8.4)1337 (8.7)18,040 (3.2)
 Multiple daily injections**1001 (9.8)480 (9.4)1481 (9.7)23,445 (4.2)
 Any insulin3454 (33.9)1648 (32.3)5102 (33.4)94,974 (16.9)
Other Medications
 Statin7098 (69.6)3546 (69.5)10,644 (69.6) 349,324 (62.2) 
 RAS inhibitor7054 (69.2)3530 (69.2)10,584 (69.2)344,949 (61.4)
 Antiplatelet agent3651 (35.8)1836 (36.0)5487 (35.9)197,612 (35.2)
  1. *based on principal diagnoses on hospitalization discharge abstracts within 2 years prior to diagnosis (except for renal conditions)
  2. chronic kidney disease eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, end-stage renal disease eGFR< 15 mL/min/1.73 m2
  3. prescriptions ≥ 28 days in duration
  4. **any combination of long-acting and short-acting insulin
  5. Abbreviations: A1C glycated haemoglobin A1c, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IQR interquartile range, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, SGLT2 sodium-glucose transport protein 2, RAS renin-angiotensin system