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Table 1 The absolute deviation for four imputation methods

From: The ability of different imputation methods for missing values in mental measurement questionnaires

Missingness proportion Imputation methods Absolute deviation for SAQ Absolute deviation for ADL
Mean (SD) SD (SD) Correlation coefficient (SD) Mean (SD) SD (SD) Correlation coefficient (SD)
5% Direct deletion 0.583 (0.195) 0.153 (0.123) 0.028 (0.014) 0.218 (0.161) 0.144 (0.115) 0.022 (0.010)
Mode 0.034 (0.021) 0.230 (0.026) 0.004 (0.002) 0.492 (0.026) 0.425 (0.039) 0.002 (0.001)
HD 0.020 (0.015) 0.025 (0.019) 0.004 (0.002) 0.016 (0.011) 0.011 (0.008) 0.001 (0.001)
MI 0.019 (0.013) 0.028 (0.020) 0.003 (0.002) 0.012 (0.010) 0.019 (0.014) 0.001 (0.001)
10% Direct deletion 1.080 (0.324) 0.226 (0.176) 0.050 (0.024) 0.417 (0.299) 0.294 (0.214) 0.041 (0.017)
Mode 0.065 (0.034) 0.463 (0.038) 0.006 (0.003) 0.999 (0.036) 0.856 (0.052) 0.004 (0.001)
HD 0.032 (0.024) 0.050 (0.035) 0.006 (0.003) 0.045 (0.021) 0.019 (0.014) 0.002 (0.001)
MI 0.028 (0.022) 0.070 (0.055) 0.006 (0.003) 0.020 (0.013) 0.030 (0.024) 0.002 (0.001)
15% Direct deletion 1.453 (0.506) 0.353 (0.285) 0.074 (0.034) 0.721 (0.532) 0.507 (0.339) 0.059 (0.026)
Mode 0.101 (0.060) 0.697 (0.044) 0.008 (0.004) 1.511 (0.044) 1.290 (0.060) 0.005 (0.002)
HD 0.041 (0.030) 0.091 (0.042) 0.009 (0.004) 0.106 (0.027) 0.028 (0.022) 0.003 (0.001)
MI 0.036 (0.033) 0.151 (0.202) 0.008 (0.003) 0.023 (0.016) 0.049 (0.036) 0.003 (0.002)
20% Direct deletion 1.586 (0.690) 0.436 (0.325) 0.097 (0.046) 0.972 (0.658) 0.751 (0.525) 0.080 (0.034)
Mode 0.141 (0.084) 0.925 (0.047) 0.009 (0.004) 2.019 (0.047) 1.717 (0.059) 0.007 (0.002)
HD 0.050 (0.033) 0.161 (0.057) 0.012 (0.005) 0.182 (0.036) 0.024 (0.019) 0.004 (0.002)
MI 0.048 (0.031) 0.287 (0.253) 0.010 (0.004) 0.024 (0.018) 0.067 (0.044) 0.005 (0.002)
  1. HD Hot-deck imputation, MI nmultiple imputation, SD standard deviation