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Table 1 The absolute deviation for four imputation methods

From: The ability of different imputation methods for missing values in mental measurement questionnaires

Missingness proportionImputation methodsAbsolute deviation for SAQAbsolute deviation for ADL
Mean (SD)SD (SD)Correlation coefficient (SD)Mean (SD)SD (SD)Correlation coefficient (SD)
5%Direct deletion0.583 (0.195)0.153 (0.123)0.028 (0.014)0.218 (0.161)0.144 (0.115)0.022 (0.010)
Mode0.034 (0.021)0.230 (0.026)0.004 (0.002)0.492 (0.026)0.425 (0.039)0.002 (0.001)
HD0.020 (0.015)0.025 (0.019)0.004 (0.002)0.016 (0.011)0.011 (0.008)0.001 (0.001)
MI0.019 (0.013)0.028 (0.020)0.003 (0.002)0.012 (0.010)0.019 (0.014)0.001 (0.001)
10%Direct deletion1.080 (0.324)0.226 (0.176)0.050 (0.024)0.417 (0.299)0.294 (0.214)0.041 (0.017)
Mode0.065 (0.034)0.463 (0.038)0.006 (0.003)0.999 (0.036)0.856 (0.052)0.004 (0.001)
HD0.032 (0.024)0.050 (0.035)0.006 (0.003)0.045 (0.021)0.019 (0.014)0.002 (0.001)
MI0.028 (0.022)0.070 (0.055)0.006 (0.003)0.020 (0.013)0.030 (0.024)0.002 (0.001)
15%Direct deletion1.453 (0.506)0.353 (0.285)0.074 (0.034)0.721 (0.532)0.507 (0.339)0.059 (0.026)
Mode0.101 (0.060)0.697 (0.044)0.008 (0.004)1.511 (0.044)1.290 (0.060)0.005 (0.002)
HD0.041 (0.030)0.091 (0.042)0.009 (0.004)0.106 (0.027)0.028 (0.022)0.003 (0.001)
MI0.036 (0.033)0.151 (0.202)0.008 (0.003)0.023 (0.016)0.049 (0.036)0.003 (0.002)
20%Direct deletion1.586 (0.690)0.436 (0.325)0.097 (0.046)0.972 (0.658)0.751 (0.525)0.080 (0.034)
Mode0.141 (0.084)0.925 (0.047)0.009 (0.004)2.019 (0.047)1.717 (0.059)0.007 (0.002)
HD0.050 (0.033)0.161 (0.057)0.012 (0.005)0.182 (0.036)0.024 (0.019)0.004 (0.002)
MI0.048 (0.031)0.287 (0.253)0.010 (0.004)0.024 (0.018)0.067 (0.044)0.005 (0.002)
  1. HD Hot-deck imputation, MI nmultiple imputation, SD standard deviation