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Table 1 The basic characteristics of guidelines included

From: An exploration of how developers use qualitative evidence: content analysis and critical appraisal of guidelines

No. Title Publication /updated (year) Publishing organization Grade of evidence and recommendation Topic Factors need to consider when formulating recommendations Number of recommendations The number of recommendations only supported by qualitative evidence The number of recommendations supported by qualitative and quantitative evidence The quantity and type of qualitative evidence Update plan (period, organization, update criteria) Number of references
1 Management of epithelial ovarian cancer [21] 2013/2018 SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN epithelial ovarian cancer the strength of the evidence;applicable; consistency of results 66 0 4 4, primary studies 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 68
2 Diagnosis and management of epilepsy in adults [22] 2015/2018 SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN epilepsy in adults the strength of the evidence;applicable; consistency of results 224 0 3 3, primary studies 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 104
3 Management of stable angina [23] 2018/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN stable angina the quality (level) of the evidence;relevance to the NHS in Scotland; applicability of published evidence to the target population; consistency of the body of evidence, and the balance of benefits and harms of the options. 59 0 2 2, primary studies 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 76
4 Cardiac rehabilitation [24] 2017/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN cardiac rehabilitation the quality (level) of the evidence;relevance to the NHS in Scotland; applicability of published evidence to the target population; consistency of the body of evidence, and the balance of benefits and harms of the options. 36 0 5 5, primary studies systematic review 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 49
5 Assessment, diagnosis and interventions for autism spectrum disorders [25] 2016/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN autism spectrum disorders the quality (level) of the evidence;relevance to the NHS in Scotland; applicability of published evidence to the target population; consistency of the body of evidence, and the balance of benefits and harms of the options. 94 0 4 4, primary studies 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 83
6 Management of chronic heart failure [26] 2016/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN chronic heart failure the quality (level) of the evidence;relevance to the NHS in Scotland; applicability of published evidence to the target population; consistency of the body of evidence, and the balance of benefits and harms of the options. 80 0 3 3, primary studies 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 82
7 Acute coronary syndrome [27] 2016/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN acute coronary syndrom the quality (level) of the evidence;relevance to the NHS in Scotland; applicability of published evidence to the target population; consistency of the body of evidence, and the balance of benefits and harms of the options. 68 0 1 1, primary study 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 66
8 British guideline on the management of asthma [28] 2016/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN asthma the strength of the evidence, applicable, consistency of results 262 0 4 4, primary studies systematic review 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 214
9 Glaucoma referral and safe discharge [29] 2015/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN glaucoma the quality (level) of the evidence;relevance to the NHS in Scotland; applicability of published evidence to the target population; consistency of the body of evidence, and the balance of benefits and harms of the options. 60 0 3 3, primary studies systematic review 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 45
10 Brain injury rehabilitation in adults [30] 2013/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN brain injury rehabilitation in adults the strength of the evidence;applicable; consistency of results 54 0 1 1, primary study 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 75
11 Management of hepatitis C [31] 2013/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN hepatitis C the strength of the evidence;applicable; consistency of results 157 0 1 1, primary study 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 64
12 Management of chronic pain [32] 2013/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN chronic pain the strength of the evidence;applicable; consistency of results 64 0 1 1, systematic review 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 71
13 Management of adult testicular germ cell tumours [33] 2011/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN adult testicular germ cell tumours the strength of the evidence;applicable; consistency of results 97 0 2 2, primary studies 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 70
14 Diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer [34] 2011/− SIGN grade criteria developed by SIGN colorectal cancer the strength of the evidence;applicable; consistency of results 114 0 1 1, primary study 3, GPAG, new evidence substantially changes a small number of recommendations, a specific issue (such as a new drug therapy or national issue), the nature of the update may not warrant assembling a multidisciplinary group 63
15 Implementing supervised injection services [35] 2018/− RNAO Adapted from SIGN and Pati D. A framework injection services benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 10 0 8 8, primary studies 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 108
16 Promoting and supporting the initiation, exclusivity, and continuation of breastfeeding for newborns, infants, and young children [36] 2018/− RNAO Adapted from SIGN and Pati D. A framework breastfeeding for newborns, infants,and young children benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable,supporting resources 16 0 4 4, primary studies 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 204
17 Adult asthma care: promoting control of asthma second edition [37] 2004/2017 RNAO Adapted from SIGN and Pati D. A framework adult asthma care benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 22 0 2 2, primary studies 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 128
18 Crisis intervention for adults using a trauma-informed Approach: initial four weeks of management third edition [38] 2002/2017 RNAO Adapted from SIGN and Pati D. A framework crisis intervention for adults benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 13 0 2 2, primary studies 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 108
19 Delirium, dementia, and depression in older adults: assessment and care second edition [39] 2010/2016 RNAO Adapted from SIGN and Pati D. A framework delirium, dementia, and depression in older adults benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 44 0 3 3, primary studies systematic review 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 164
20 Person- and family-centred care [40] 2015/− RNAO Adapted from SIGN and Pati D. A framework person- and family-centred care benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 15 0 6 6, primary studies systematic review 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 106
21 Care transitions [41] 2014/− RNAO Adapted from SIGN care transitions benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 22 0 4 4, primary studies 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 93
22 Preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults: person-centred, collaborative, system-wide approaches [42] 2014/− RNAO Adapted from SIGN and Pati D. A framework abuse and neglect of older adults benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 22 0 5 6, primary studies 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 130
23 Primary prevention of childhood obesity second edition [43] 2005/2014 RNAO Adapted from SIGN childhood obesity benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 21 0 2 2, primary studies 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 144
24 Assessment and management of foot ulcers for people with diabetes second edition [44] 2005/2013 RNAO Adapted from SIGN foot ulcers for people with diabetes benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 27 2 1 4, primary study 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 160
25 Promoting safety: alternative approaches to the use of restraints [45] 2012/− RNAO Adapted from SIGN promoting safety benefits and harms,values and preferences,applicable, supporting resources 12 0 7 7, primary studies systematic review 5, IABPG, three months prior to the review milestone, new systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other relevant literature in the field 152
26 Depression in children and young people: identification and management [46] 2019 NICE GRADE depression in children and young people the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 121 0 1 1, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 44
27 Pancreatic cancer in adults: diagnosis and management [47] 2018/− NICE GRADE pancreatic cancer in adults the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 57 0 1 1, primary study 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 21
28 Antimicrobial stewardship: changing risk related behaviours in the general population [48] 2017/− NICE GRADE antimicrobial stewardship the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 35 0 1 2, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 44
29 Eating disorders: recognition and treatment [49] 2017/− NICE GRADE eating disorders the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 139 0 1 1, primary study 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 41
30 Healthcare-associated infections: prevention and control in primary and community care [50] 2012/2017 NICE GRADE healthcare-associated infections the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 102 1 0 1, primary study 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 33
31 Hip fracture: management [51] 2011/2017 NICE GRADE hip fracture the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 33 0 2 2, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 19
32 Immunisations: reducing differences in uptake in under 19 s [52] 2009/2017 NICE GRADE immunisations the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 6 0 2 60, primary studies systematic review 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 60
33 Intermediate care including reablement [53] 2017/− NICE GRADE intermediate care the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 52 0 5 5, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 28
34 Suspected cancer: recognition and referral [54] 2015/2017 NICE GRADE suspected cancer the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 110 0 1 1, primary study 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 79
35 Coexisting severe mental illness and substance misuse: community health and social care services [55] 2016/− NICE GRADE coexisting severe mental illness and substance misuse the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 50 6 4 153, primary studies systematic review 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 60
36 Oral health for adults in care homes [56] 2016/− NICE GRADE adults in care homes the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 22 0 11 93, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 37
37 Skin cancer prevention [57] 2011/2016 NICE GRADE skin cancer the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 6 1 4 54, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 64
38 Maternal and child nutrition [58] 2008/2014 NICE GRADE maternal and child nutrition the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 15 0 4 4, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 98
39 Needle and syringe programmes [59] 2014/− NICE GRADE needle and syringe programmes the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 10 1 3 7, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 58
40 Physical activity: brief advice for adults in primary care [60] 2013/− NICE GRADE adults in primary care the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 5 3 2 68, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 60
41 Service user experience in adult mental health: improving the experience of care for people using adult NHS mental health services [61] 2011/− NICE GRADE adult mental health the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 44 0 5 7, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 42
42 Type 2 diabetes prevention: population and community-level interventions [62] 2011/− NICE GRADE type 2 diabetes prevention the evidence available,the individual needs,preferences and values of patients 11 3 4 67, primary studies 3, NICE’ s Guidance Executive, references to other NICE guidance or hyperlinks to other NICE endorsed tools or resources, the latest government policy or guidelines, reflect the current practice context 84
43 WHO recommendations
Intrapartum care for a positive childbirth experience [63]
2018 WHO GRADE Intrapartum care the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 56 0 12 15, primary studies systematic review updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 210
44 Guidelines for managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy [64] 2017 WHO GRADE HIV disease the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 2 0 1 5, primary studies updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 56
45 Protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in facilities providing maternity and newborn services [65] 2017 WHO GRADE breastfeeding the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 15 6 6 42, primary studies updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 136
46 Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification: supplement to consolidated guidelines on
HIV testing services [66]
2016 WHO GRADE HIV self-testing and partner notification the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 12 0 4 10, primary studies systematic review updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 104
47 WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience [67] 2016 WHO GRADE antenatal care the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 49 6 6 10, primary studies systematic review updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 172
48 Health worker roles in providing safe abortion care and post-abortion contraception [68] 2015 WHO GRADE safe abortion care and post-abortion contraception the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 116 8 8 204, primary studies systematic review updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 92
49 WHO recommendations on health promotion interventions for maternal and newborn health [69] 2015 WHO GRADE maternal and newborn health the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 12 0 6 6, primary studies systematic review updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 94
50 WHO recommendations optimizing health worker roles to improve access to key maternal and newborn health interventions through task shifting [70] 2012 WHO GRADE maternal and newborn health interventions the evidence domains on values, Equity, acceptability and feasibility 38 0 23 17, primary studies systematic review updated after five years as more evidence becomes available 98
51 Nursing practice guideline for emergency percutaneous coronary intervention [71] 2019 NCCD, CCBNA, RC-NTPC-AMSPUMC, EBMCLU GRADE emergency percutaneous coronary intervention 20 6
52 Expert consensus on breast tumor plastic surgery and breast reconstruction (2018 edition) [72] 2018/− CBCS, CSBS GRADE breast cancer 46 0 3 3, primary studies 42
53 Gestational diabetes mellitus clinical nursing practice guideline [73] 2018 MHFU, SNFU, SEBNC GRADE Gestational diabetes mellitus 69 0 1 2, primary studies systematic review updated every three to five years 116
54 Evidence-based guidelines for breastfeeding of hospitalized newborns [74] 2017 PHFU, SNFU, JBI-EBNCCFU, SEBNC GRADE breastfeeding of hospitalized newborns 83 updated every three to five years 97
55 Clinical nursing guideline on cancer related fatigue in adults [75] 2017 JBI-EBNCCFU GRADE cancer related fatigue in adults 33 5
56 Clinical application of anaesthesia in accelerated rehabilitation surgery of colorectal surgery in lingnan expert consensus on operation specification (2016 edition) [76] 2016/− GD-MAARSB GRADE enterosurgery 35 0 2 2, systematic review 11
57 HIV/AIDS nursing clinical practice guidelines [77] 2016 SPHCC, JBI-EBNCCFU GRADE HIV/AIDS nursing 139 0 2 2, systematic review updated every three to five years 216
58 Nursing practice guideline of acute heart failure [78] 2016 NCCD, HFCCMA, BNS GRADE acute heart failure 25 10
59 Clinical nursing practice guideline for enteral nutrition for infants with congenital heart disease [79] 2016 JBI-EBNCCFU, SEBNC, PHFU GRADE congenital heart disease 38 updated every five years 134
60 Clinical practice guideline for nasogastric tube feeding among adult patients [80] 2015 ECHFU, SNFU GRADE nasogastric tube feeding among adult patients 99 142
61 Clinical practice guidelines of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) catheterization [81] 2014 FUSCC, SNFU, JBI-EBNCCFU GRADE peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) catheterization 56 0 1 1, primary studies updated every three to five years 66
62 Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on prevention and management of medication errors in hospitalized adult patients [82] 2014 SNFU GRADE prevention and management of medication errors 28 4
63 Clinical practice guideline for oral care on critically ill patients with endotracheal intubation [83] 2013 JBI-EBNCCFU, SNFU GRADE oral care on critically ill patients 17 110
64 Clinical practice guideline on inpatient fall prevention [84] 2011 JBI-EBNCCFU GRADE inpatient fall prevention 31 updated every three to five years 57
  1. SIGN Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, RNAO Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario, NICE the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, GD-MAARSB Guangdong Provincial Medical Association Accelerated Rehabilitation Surgeons Branch, CBCS Committee of Breast Cancer Society, CSBS Committee Specialist of Breast Surgeons, GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation, GPAG the Guideline Programme Advisory Group, IABPG International Affairs and Best Practice Guideline, NCCD National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, CCBNA Cardialvascular Committee of Beijing Nursing Assossiation, RC-NTPC-AMSPUMC Research Center of Nursing Theory and Practice Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences &Peking Union Medical College, EBMCLU Evidence-based Medical Center of Lanzhou University, MHFU Maternity Hospital of Fudan University, SNFU School of Nursing, Fudan University, SEBNC Shanghai Evidence-based Nursing Center, PHFU Pediatric Hospital of Fudan University, JBI-EBNCCFU JBI Evidence-based Nursing Cooperation Center of Fudan University, SPHCC Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, HFCCMA Heart Failure Committee of Chinese Medical Association, BNS Beijing Nursing Society, ECHFU East China Hospital of FudanUniversity, FUSCC Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center