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Table 2 Prominent Survey Measures of Psychological Safety

From: Measuring psychological safety in healthcare teams: developing an observational measure to complement survey methods

Authors Items (Corresponding item in adapted survey) Main features
Anderson & West [18] 1. We share information generally in the team rather than keeping it to ourselves (Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q11, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q18, Q19)
2. We have a “we are together” attitude (Q9, Q10, Q17, Q18, Q19)
3. We all influence each other
4. People keep each other informed about work-related issues in the teamb (Q2, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q11, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q18, Q19)
5. People feel understood and accepted by each other (Q3, Q7, Q12, Q16)
6. Everyone’s view is listened to, even if it is in a minority (Q2, Q4, Q7, Q11, Q13, Q16)
7. There are real attempts to share information throughout the teamb (Q2, Q5, Q6, Q11, Q14, Q15, Q18, Q19)
8. There is a lot of give and take (Q17)
− Measures participative safety including: influence over decision making, information sharing, interaction frequency and safety.
− Versions have been used in healthcare setting.
Edmondson [1] 1. If you make a mistake on this team, it is often held against you (Q5, Q6, Q14, Q15)
2. Members of this team are able to bring up problems and tough issues (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q5, Q6, Q10, Q11, Q12, Q14, Q15)
3. People on this team sometimes reject others for being differentb (Q4, Q7, Q13, Q16)
4. It is safe to take a risk on this team (All)
5. It is difficult to ask other members of this team for helpb (Q1, Q10, Q17)
6. No one on this team would deliberately act in a way that undermines my efforts (Q7, Q16)
7. Working with members of this team, my unique skills and talents are valued and utilizedb (Q4, Q7, Q8, Q13, Q16)
8. No one on this team would deliberately act in a way that undermines my efforts
9. Working with members of this team, my unique skills and talents are valued and utilizedb
− Most commonly used measure of team psychological safety.
− Developed through interviews and observations conducted within manufacturing company.
− Has demonstrated good psychometric properties in various settings, including healthcare.
Edmondson & Wooley [19] 1. If I make a mistake in this job, it is often held against me (Q5, Q14)
2. It is difficult to ask others in this department for helpa (Q1, Q10, Q17)
3. My manager often encourages me to take on new tasks or to learn how to do things I have never done beforeb (Q4, Q8)
4. If I was thinking about leaving this company to pursue a better job elsewhere, I would talk to my manager about it (Q2, Q9)
5. If I had a problem in this company, I could depend on my manager to be my advocateb (Q2, Q3, Q9)
6. Often when I raise a problem with my manager, s/he does not seem very interested in helping me find a solutiona (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q5, Q6, Q9)
− Includes questions examining perceptions of managers and leaders regarding their support for speaking up.
Nembhard & Edmondson [2] 1. If you make a mistake in this team, it tends to be held against youa (Q5, Q6, Q14, Q15)
2. People in this unit are comfortable checking with each other if they have questions about the right way to do somethingb (Q1, Q2, Q10, Q11)
3. The people in our team value others’ unique skills and talentsb (Q7, Q8, Q13, Q16)
4. Members of this team are able to bring up problems and tough issues (Q1, Q2, Q5, Q6, Q11, Q12)
− Four items adapted from Edmondson (1999) scale to assess whether staff in a Neo-natal Intensive Care Unit felt psychologically safe.
Detert & Burris [20] 1. It is safe for me to make suggestions (Q4, Q7, Q13, Q16)
2. It is safe for me to give my opinionb (Q2, Q4, Q7, Q11, Q13, Q16)
3. It is safe for me to speak up around hereb (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q10, Q11, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q16, Q17, Q18, Q19)
− Adapted Edmondson (1999)‘s team level items to capture individual level assessment of psychological safety within a restraint chain.
Garvin, Edmondson & Gino [21] 1. In this unit, it is easy to speak up about what is on your mindb (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q10, Q11, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q16, Q17, Q18, Q19)
2. If you make a mistake in this unit, it is often held against youa (Q5, Q6, Q14, Q15)
3. People in this unit are usually comfortable talking about problems and disagreementsb (Q2, Q3, Q5, Q6, Q9, Q11, Q14, Q15)
4. People in this unit are eager to share information about what does and doesn’t work (Q2, Q4, Q11, Q13, Q18, Q19)
5. Keeping your cards close to your chest is the best way to get ahead in this unita (All)
− Captures unit-level psychological safety.
− Previously used to determine if a company functions as a learning organisation.
  1. aReverse scored
  2. b Items marked in italics were retained and presented at the second feedback session