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Table 3 Process for Conducting Feedback Sessions to Adapt Survey Measures of Psychological Safety

From: Measuring psychological safety in healthcare teams: developing an observational measure to complement survey methods

Stage Explanation Output
Workshop
 Introduction Researcher introduced the concept of psychological safety and gave examples relevant to healthcare settings Healthcare professionals gained an understanding of psychological safety and the role it plays in teams.
 Measurement development Each participant was given items from six previously validated psychological safety scales (see Table 1). Each item was printed on individual slips of paper.
Participants were invited to build their own measure of psychological safety by choosing the items they felt, based on their experience of working on healthcare teams, were most relevant. They could make any changes to the wording of items and add any relevant questions they felt were missing.
Each participant developed their own scale made up of the items they felt where most relevant to understanding psychological safety in healthcare teams.
 Group discussion The scales they developed were collected and there was a group discussion. Feedback from the group, along with the items they chose to include in their scales were recorded and used to inform the adaptation of the survey.
Post-workshop
 Scale adaptation Items from the original psychological safety scales were adapted based on feedback sessions An initial draft of the adapted survey.
 Discuss with research advisory panel Draft versions of the scale were presented to and discussed with a research advisory panel made up of three academic researchers in the field of psychological safety and organisational change in healthcare settings. Further iterations of the adapted survey.
 Check-up with literature The final scale was also reviewed to ensure the new items were in line with theoretical definitions of psychological safety from the literature (4,5). Adapted survey to be used in the pilot tests (see Table 5).