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Table 8 Corresponding Observation and Survey Items

From: Measuring psychological safety in healthcare teams: developing an observational measure to complement survey methods

Behaviours Corresponding survey questions
Voice Behaviours
 Communicating opinions to others even if they disagree Q2, Q4, Q7, Q11, Q13, Q16, Q18, Q19
 Asking questions Q1, Q10, Q17
 Providing information Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q11, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q18, Q19
 Providing feedback Q2, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q11, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q16, Q18, Q19
 Providing help or solutions Q4, Q13, Q18
 Correcting others Q15, Q18, Q19
Defensive Voice Behaviours
 Denying faults or blame others Q5, Q14
 Showing aggression (Raising voice, large gestures) NA
 Evading confrontation by focusing only on positives Q5, Q6, Q14, Q15
Silence Behaviours
 Facial expression indicates fear Q7, Q16
 Facial expression indicates disengagement Q4, Q7, Q8, Q13, Q16,
 Closed body language (arms closed, lean backwards) NA
Supportive Behaviours
 Sharing procedures, knowledge and experience Q2, Q4, Q11, Q13 Q18, Q19
 Sharing future plans Q18, Q19
 Active listening (verify, paraphrase) Q1, Q10
 Use of inclusive language such as “we” NA
 Agreeing/Responding positively or enthusiastically to input Q7, Q16
 Acknowledging achievements/ congratulating one another Q8
 Delegating tasks Q8, Q17
Unsupportive Behaviours
 Interrupting Q7, Q16
 Discussions within small sub-groups Q7, Q16
 Reacting cold/ignoring a joke NA
Learning or Improvement Oriented Behaviours
 Reviewing own progress and performance Q1, Q4, Q10, Q13, Q19
 Asking for feedback Q1, Q10
 Asking for help or solutions Q1, Q10, Q17
 Asking for input from all meeting participants Q7, Q8, Q16
 Informing the team about issues or mistakes related to patient safety Q5, Q6, Q14, Q15, Q18, Q19
 Looking for improvement opportunities and speaking up with ideas Q4, Q8, Q13
 Acknowledging own mistake Q5, Q14
Familiarity Behaviours
 Talking about personal, non-work matters Q12, Q3
 Laughing about a joke NA
Overview Observations
 There was enough opportunity for participants to ask for help Q1, Q10, Q17
 There was enough opportunity for participants to speak up Q1, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q16, Q18, Q19
 There was enough opportunity for participants to discuss with the team leader Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7
 Certain team members dominated the discussion Q7, Q16
 Decisions were made together, by the entire team Q7, Q16
 The atmosphere in this team was constructive Q1, Q4, Q8, Q10, Q13, Q17, Q19
 People seemed genuine and not to hold back anything Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q10, Q11, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q16, Q17, Q18, Q19