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Table 1 Description of the variables measured for the jth individual belonging to the ith school at wave k in the analysis model

From: Evaluation of approaches for multiple imputation of three-level data

Variable Type Grouping /Range Label
Child’s sex Categorical 0 = Female 1 = Male sexij
Child’s age (wave 1) Continuous Range [7,8,9,10,11] ageij1
SES measured by the SEIFA IRSAD quintile (wave 1) Categorical 0 = 1st quintile (most disadvantaged) SESij1
1 = 2nd quintile
2 = 3rd quintile
3 = 4th quintile
4 = 5th quintile (most advantaged)
Standardized NAPLAN numeracy score (wave 1) Continuous z-score NAPLAN _ zij1
Standardized NAPLAN numeracy score (waves 3,5 and 7) Continuous z-score NAPLAN _ zijk
a Depressive symptoms (waves 2,4 and 6) Continuous Range [0,8] depressionij(k − 1)
b Overall child behaviour reported by SDQ (waves 2,4 and 6) Continuous Range[0,40] SDQij(k − 1)
  1. IRSAD Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage, NAPLAN National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SEIFA Socioeconomic Index for Areas, SES Socio-Economic Status
  2. aA subset of 4 items (each ranging from 0 to 2) from the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) was used to measure the depressive symptoms at each wave in the CATS study [3, 38]. Depressive symptoms at each wave in our study is the total summary score of these four items
  3. b For measuring the overall child behaviour, a total difficulties score is derived from the first 4 subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems (each ranging from 0 to 10) [39]. This variable is not included in the analysis but is included in the imputation model as an auxiliary variable to improve its performance