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Table 2 Results of the longitudinal analysis of the four dimensions of interest of the EORTC QLQ-C30

From: Handling informative dropout in longitudinal analysis of health-related quality of life: application of three approaches to data from the esophageal cancer clinical trial PRODIGE 5/ACCORD 17

  LMM SM PMM SPM
  Estimate CI 95% p   Estimate CI 95% p   Estimate CI 95% p   Estimate CI 95% p
QL (N = 252)
Longitudinal outcome β1 0.513 [0.24; 0.78] <0.001 β1 0.513 NA NA β1 −0.628 [−1.75; 0.50] 0.275 β1 0.477 [0.12; 0.84] 0.009
β2 −0.130 [− 0.49; 0.23] 0.472 β2 − 0.130 [− 0.95; 0.69] 0.757 β2 0.464 [−1.17; 2.10] 0.578 β2 −0.122 [− 0.48; 0.24] 0.506
Dropout      ψ0 −0.808 [−1.31; − 0.31] 0.001 \( {\beta}_1^1 \) −2.611 [−5.59; 0.37] 0.086 γ −0.042 [− 0.29; 0.21] 0.744
     ψ1 −0.005 [− 0.01; 0.00] 0.221 \( {\beta}_2^1 \) 1.256 [−3.17; 5.69] 0.579 α −0.003 [−0.02; 0.02] 0.756
     ψ2 0.005 [0.00; 0.01] 0.075 \( {\beta}_1^2 \) −0.649 [−2.02; 0.72] 0.353 ξ1 0.110 [−3.46; 3.68] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^2 \) 0.722 [−0.96; 2.41] 0.401 ξ2 0.105 [−3.50; 3.71] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_1^3 \) −0.009 [− 0.69; 0.67] 0.980 ξ3 0.181 [−3.45; 3.81] 0.006
         \( {\beta}_2^3 \) −0.248 [−1.14; 0.64] 0.586 ξ4 0.122 [−3.52; 3.77] 0.001
         \( {\beta}_1^4 \) 0.477 [0.15; 0.81] 0.005 ξ5 0.06 [−3.65; 3.77] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^4 \) −0.123 [− 0.54; 0.29] 0.559 ξ6 0.065 [−3.76; 3.89] <0.001
             ξ7 0.071 [−4.04; 4.18] <0.001
PF (N = 254)
Longitudinal outcome β1 −0.164 [−0.45; 0.12] 0.266 β1 1.434 [1.02; 1.85] <0.001 β1 −2.652 [−3.67; −1.64] < 0.001 β1 −0.394 [− 0.83; 0.04] 0.078
β2 −0.112 [− 0.51; 0.29] 0.586 β2 −0.189 [− 0.68; 0.31] 0.456 β2 0.300 [−1.10; 1.70] 0.676 β2 −0.084 [− 0.50; 0.33] 0.691
Dropout      ψ0 −3.231 [−5.16; −1.30] 0.001 \( {\beta}_1^1 \) −6.526 [−9.16; − 3.89] <0.001 γ − 0.003 [−0.26; 0.25] 0.980
     ψ1 −0.089 [−0.11; − 0.06] <0.001 \( {\beta}_2^1 \) 1.135 [−2.86; 5.13] 0.578 α −0.015 [− 0.03; 0.00] 0.006
     ψ2 0.107 [0.07; 0.14] <0.001 \( {\beta}_1^2 \) −1.805 [−2.98; −0.63] 0.003 ξ1 0.272 [−2.88; 3.42] 0.006
         \( {\beta}_2^2 \) 0.362 [−1.15; 1.88] 0.640 ξ2 0.270 [−2.88; 3.42] 0.006
         \( {\beta}_1^3 \) −0.474 [−1.06; 0.11] 0.115 ξ3 0.474 [−2.66; 3.61] 0.112
         \( {\beta}_2^3 \) 0.017 [−0.81; 0.84] 0.968 ξ4 0.309 [−2.82; 3.44] 0.012
         \( {\beta}_1^4 \) 0.152 [−0.16; 0.46] 0.340 ξ5 0.158 [−2.90; 3.22] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^4 \) −0.185 [− 0.61; 0.24] 0.391 ξ6 0.165 [−2.78; 3.12] < 0.001
             ξ7 0.185 [−2.94; 3.31] < 0.001
PA (N = 254)
Longitudinal outcome β1 −0.472 [− 0.82; − 0.13] 0.008 β1 −0.472 [−1.23; 0.29] 0.224 β1 1.166 [−0.30; 2.63] 0.118 β1 −0.527 [− 0.99; − 0.07] 0.024
β2 0.276 [−0.19; 0.74] 0.242 β2 0.276 [−0.59; 1.14] 0.531 β2 −0.501 [−2.60; 1.60] 0.640 β2 0.285 [−0.18; 0.75] 0.231
Dropout      ψ0 0 [− 0.20; 0.20] 1 \( {\beta}_1^1 \) 4.582 [0.54; 8.62] 0.027 γ −0.012 [−0.27; 0.24] 0.927
     ψ1 0 [−0.01; 0.01] 1 \( {\beta}_2^1 \) −2.505 [−8.47; 3.46] 0.411 α −0.003 [−0.02; 0.01] 0.720
     ψ2 0 [−0.01; 0.01] 1 \( {\beta}_1^2 \) 0.281 [−1.52; 2.08] 0.759 ξ1 0.086 [−2.49; 2.66] < 0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^2 \) 0.048 [−2.15; 2.25] 0.966 ξ2 0.086 [−2.50; 2.67] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_1^3 \) 0.264 [−0.60; 1.13] 0.551 ξ3 0.152 [−2.41; 2.72] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^3 \) 0.239 [−0.93; 1.41] 0.689 ξ4 0.098 [−2.44; 2.63] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_1^4 \) −0.511 [−0.93; − 0.09] 0.017 ξ5 0.053 [−2.42; 2.52] < 0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^4 \) 0.267 [−0.27; 0.80] 0.328 ξ6 0.055 [−2.31; 2.43] <0.001
             ξ7 0.058 [−2.41; 2.52] < 0.001
FA (N = 254)
Longitudinal outcome β1 −0.514 [−0.86; −0.17] 0.003 β1 −2.484 [−3.12; −1.84] <0.001 β1 3.157 [1.67; 4.65] <0.001 β1 −0.399 [−0.86; 0.06] 0.089
β2 0.275 [−0.18; 0.73] 0.239 β2 0.027 [−0.59; 0.64] 0.932 β2 −0.098 [−2.15; 1.95] 0.926 β2 0.249 [−0.21; 0.71] 0.288
Dropout      ψ0 −0.907 [−1.27; − 0.54] <0.001 \( {\beta}_1^1 \) 8.574 [4.67; 12.48] <0.001 γ −0.019 [−0.27; 0.23] 0.883
     ψ1 0.047 [0.03; 0.06] <0.001 \( {\beta}_2^1 \) −0.436 [−6.28; 5.41] 0.884 α 0.006 [−0.01; 0.02] 0.299
     ψ2 −0.097 [− 0.12; − 0.07] <0.001 \( {\beta}_1^2 \) 3.118 [1.39; 4.85] <0.001 ξ1 0.068 [−2.52; 2.66] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^2 \) −1.12 [−3.29; 1.05] 0.312 ξ2 0.064 [−2.55; 2.68] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_1^3 \) 0.626 [−0.20; 1.45] 0.139 ξ3 0.117 [−2.48; 2.71] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^3 \) −0.087 [−1.21; 1.04] 0.880 ξ4 0.076 [−2.49; 2.64] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_1^4 \) −0.737 [−1.14; − 0.34] <0.001 ξ5 0.041 [−2.48; 2.56] <0.001
         \( {\beta}_2^4 \) 0.382 [−0.14; 0.90] 0.149 ξ6 0.045 [−2.39; 2.48] <0.001
             ξ7 0.049 [−2.48; 2.58] <0.001
  1. Legend: LMM Linear Mixed Model, SM Selection Model, PMM Pattern-Mixture Model, SPM Shared-Parameter Model, CI Confidence Interval, QL Global Health Status, PF Physical functioning, PA Pain, FA Fatigue
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