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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants with impaired kidney function by MetS status (n = 25,569) a

From: Comparing two methods for deriving dietary patterns associated with risk of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese adults with impaired kidney function

  All participants
(n = 25,569)
Participants without MetS
(n = 18,593)
Participants with MetS
(n = 6976)
P b
Age (years) 51.0 (14.0) 49.0 (13.0) 55.0 (16.0) <  0.001
Sex, n (%)     <  0.001
 Male 14,311 (56.0) 9854 (53.0) 4457 (63.9)  
 Female 11,258 (44.0) 8739 (47.0) 2519 (36.1)  
Education level, n (%)     <  0.001
 Below university 16,733 (65.4) 11,748 (63.2) 4985 (71.5)  
 University or above 8836 (34.6) 6845 (36.8) 1991 (28.5)  
Income (NTD/year), n (%)     <  0.001
  < 800,000 11,620 (45.4) 8083 (43.5) 3537 (50.7)  
 810,000–1.6 million 9407 (36.8) 7057 (37.9) 2350 (33.7)  
  ≥ 1.61 million 4542 (17.8) 3453 (18.6) 1089 (15.6)  
Marital status, n (%)     <  0.001
 No 4050 (15.8) 2822 (15.2) 1228 (17.6)  
 Yes 21,519 (84.2) 15,771 (84.8) 5748 (82.4)  
Smoking, n (%)     <  0.001
 No 21,243 (83.1) 15,660 (84.2) 5583 (80.0)  
 Yes 4326 (16.9) 2933 (15.8) 1393 (20.0)  
Drinking alcohol, n (%)     <  0.001
 No 21,175 (82.8) 15,586 (83.8) 5589 (80.1)  
 Yes 4394 (17.2) 3007 (16.2) 1387 (19.9)  
Sleep quality, n (%)     0.58
 Not well 22,413 (87.7) 16,311 (87.7) 6102 (87.5)  
 Well 3156 (12.3) 2282 (12.3) 874 (12.5)  
MET (hours per week) 5.8 (11.7) 5.9 (11.7) 5.8 (11.7) 0.012
BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 (4.2) 23.0 (3.6) 26.6 (3.9) <  0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 80.0 (13.0) 77.0 (12.0) 88.0 (11.0) <  0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.8 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) <  0.001
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic 121.0 (24.0) 117.0 (21.0) 134.0 (20.0) <  0.001
 Diastolic 73.0 (16.0) 71.0 (15.0) 80.0 (15.0) <  0.001
Biomarkers (mmol/L)
 TG 1.2 (0.9) 1.0 (0.7) 1.9 (1.1) <  0.001
 HDL-C 1.4 (0.5) 1.5 (0.5) 1.2 (0.4) <  0.001
 LDL-C 3.1 (1.0) 3.1 (1.0) 3.0 (1.1) <  0.001
 TC 5.2 (1.2) 5.2 (1.1) 5.3 (1.2) <  0.001
 FBG 5.6 (0.7) 5.5 (0.6) 6.0 (0.9) <  0.001
Creatinine (μmol/L) 91.1 (23.0) 89.3 (23.0) 94.6 (23.9) <  0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 76.4 (13.5) 77.4 (12.7) 73.4 (15.6) <  0.001
Urinary protein, n (%)     <  0.001
  + 1 24,464 (95.7) 18,133 (97.5) 6331 (90.8)  
  + 2 636 (2.5) 300 (1.6) 336 (4.8)  
  ≥ + 3 469 (1.8) 160 (0.9) 309 (4.4)  
Prevalence of chronic diseases, n (%)
 Type 2 diabetes 2449 (9.6) 832 (4.5) 1617 (23.2) <  0.001
 Hypertension 7450 (29.1) 3220 (17.3) 4230 (60.6) <  0.001
 Cardiovascular disease 1519 (5.9) 749 (4.0) 770 (11.0) <  0.001
  1. MetS metabolic syndrome, NTD New Taiwan dollar, MET metabolic equivalent task, BMI body mass index, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, FBG fasting blood glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. aContinuous variables are presented as median (interquartile range). Categorical variables are presented as absolute frequency (percentage)
  3. bThe P-values were tested using Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables