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Table 4 Model fit Indices for growth mixture models of aggressive behavior in the TRacking Adolescent Individuals’ Lives Survey (TRAILS), The Netherlands, 2001–2017: text bolded for the best fitting model for each number of classes

From: Variance constraints strongly influenced model performance in growth mixture modeling: a simulation and empirical study

Model # Classes BIC aBIC AIC Entropy
0: Unconstrained 1a − 2326 − 2367 − 2400
2 − 4393 − 4475 − 4541 0.69
3 − 4885 − 5009 −5107 0.67
1A: Residual variance time constrained 1b − 2300 − 2325 − 2345
2 − 4090 − 4141 − 4182 0.7
3 − 4553 − 4630 − 4690 0.65
4 − 4738 − 4840 − 4921 0.66
5 − 4929 − 5056 − 5157 0.68
1B: Residual variance classes constrained 2 − 3421 − 3506 − 3575 0.56
3 − 3149 − 3235 − 3303 0.54
4 − 3261 − 3369 − 3455 0.54
1C: Random effects constrained 2 − 4143 − 4219 − 4280 0.67
3 − 4791 − 4902 − 4991 0.66
2A: Residual variance constrained time and classes 2 − 2873 − 2921 − 2959 0.46
3 − 3029 − 3099 − 3154 0.58
4 − 3186 − 3278 − 3352 0.55
5 − 3360 − 3474 − 3565 0.59
2B: Random effects and residual variance time constrained 2 − 3843 − 3888 − 3923 0.66
3 − 4459 − 4522 − 4573 0.7
4 − 4685 − 4768 − 4833 0.71
5 − 4889 −4991 − 5072 0.71
2C: Random effects and residual variance classes constrained 2 − 2705 − 2763 − 2808 0.79
3 − 2916 − 2989 − 3047 0.78
4 − 3032 − 3121 − 3192 0.76
5 − 3155 − 3260 − 3344 0.73
  1. For some models, solutions are not shown for all number of classes because in those instances no solutions could be computed: In Model 0 and 1C for 4 and 5 classes, and in Model 1B for 5 classes
  2. BIC Bayesian Information Criterion, aBIC Adjusted BIC, AIC Aikake Information Criterion
  3. aThis model is the same as the 1-class models 1B, 1C and 2C,
  4. bThis model is the same as the 1-class models 2A and 2B