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Table 1 A taxonomy of graphical displays for meta-analysis

From: Charting the landscape of graphical displays for meta-analysis and systematic reviews: a comprehensive review, taxonomy, and feature analysis

Category Key properties of displays in this category
01 - Forest plot-like Display of study effects, their confidence intervals, and a summary effect or study-group summary effects.
02 - Funnel plot-like Bivariate display of study effect size (or functions thereof) and study precision (or functions thereof).
03 - Continuous effect moderators Display of the association of effect sizes and continuous covariates for the explanation of between-study heterogeneity.
04 - Robustness, outlier, and influence diagnostics Illustrates the sensitivity of meta-analytic estimates, or the influence of single studies/outliers.
05 - Cumulative meta-analysis and time trends Depicts the cumulative development of a meta-analytic estimate over time.
06 - Effect-size distribution Depicts study effect-size distributions, but no meta-analytic summary statistics.
07 - Study or subgroup characteristics Plot of study (or study-group) features other than effect size, standard error, or meta-analytic estimates.
08 - More than one effect size per study (multivariate) Depicts more than one effect size per study.
09 - Combined effect(s) only Displays meta-analytic summary effect(s), but not study-level effects.
10 - Study selection and p-value based Displays primarily based on the p values of study results; usually for publication bias assessment.
11 - Network meta-analysis Displays specifically proposed to visualize results of a network meta-analysis.