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# Table 3 Annotated taxonomy of 208 retrieved graphical displays for meta-analysis

ID | Name | Year | Source reference |
---|---|---|---|

1.1 | Confidence interval plot, caterpillar plot | 1978 | [23] |

1.2 | Forest plot | 1982 | n.a. |

1.2.1 | Subgroup forest plot | n.a. | n.a. |

1.2.2 | Summary forest plot | n.a. | n.a. |

1.2.3 | Shrinkage plot, Bayesian forest plot | n.a. | n.a. |

1.2.4 | Raindrop plot | 2003 | [29] |

1.2.5 | Limits of equivalence forest plot | 2007 | [30] |

1.2.6 | Confidence distribution plot | 2010 | [31] |

1.2.7 | Rainforest plot | 2015 | [22] |

1.2.8 | Thick forest plot | 2015 | [23] |

1.2.9 | Contour-enhanced forest plot | 2017 | [32] |

1.3 | Odd man out plot | 1988 | [33] |

1.4 | Fuzzy number plot | 2016 | [34] |

1.4.1 | Fuzzy number plot with subgroups | 2016 | [34] |

2.1 | Funnel plot | 1984 | [35] |

2.1.1 | Subgroup funnel plot | 1984 | [35] |

2.1.2 | Regression test funnel plot | 1997 | [36] |

2.1.3 | Funnel plot with weighted mean, median and mode | 1998 | [37] |

2.1.4 | Trim-and-fill funnel plot | 2000 | [38] |

2.1.5 | Significance contour-enhanced funnel plot | 2008 | [39] |

2.1.6 | Additional evidence contours funnel plot: Summary effect significance | 2012 | [40] |

2.1.7 | Additional evidence contours funnel plot: Heterogeneity | 2012 | [40] |

2.1.8 | Additional evidence contours funnel plot: Summary CI width | 2012 | [41] |

2.1.9 | Additional evidence contours funnel plot: Summary CI lower/upper bound | 2012 | [41] |

2.1.10 | Additional evidence contours funnel plot: Limits of equivalence | 2012 | [41] |

2.1.11 | Additional evidence contours funnel plot: Summary effect | 2015 | [42] |

2.1.12 | Funnel plot with imputed non-statistically-significant unreported effects | 2015 | [43] |

2.1.13 | Meta-analyser funnel plot | 2016 | [44] |

2.1.14 | Funnel plot with summary diamond | n.a. | n.a. |

2.1.15 | Funnel plot with bias-corrected effect sizes | n.a. | n.a. |

2.2 | Galbraith plot (a.k.a. radial plot) | 1988 | [45] |

2.2.1 | Subgroup Galbraith plot | 1988 | [45] |

2.2.2 | Galbraith plot with Egger regression | 1997 | [36] |

2.2.3 | 3D Galbraith plot | n.a. | n.a. |

2.3 | Gravity plot | 2005 | [46] |

2.4 | Doi plot | 2016 | [47] |

2.5 | Begg and Mazmudar test display | n.a. | n.a. |

2.5.1 | Begg and Mazmudar test display with subgroups | n.a. | n.a. |

3.1 | Scatterplot of effect size with continuous moderator | 1977 | [6] |

3.1.1 | Binned scatterplot | n.a. | n.a. |

3.2 | Meta-regression plot | 1977 | [6] |

3.2.1 | Meta-regression weight bubble plot | n.a. | n.a. |

3.2.2 | Meta-regression plot with subgroups | n.a. | n.a. |

3.2.3 | Meta-regression plot with confidence or prediction bands | n.a. | n.a. |

3.2.4 | Meta-regression plot including effect-size confidence intervals | 1984 | [35] |

3.2.5 | Surface plot | 1998 | [48] |

3.2.6 | Trim-and-fill meta-regression plot | 2012 | [49] |

3.2.7 | Meta-analytic regression/classification tree | 2014 | [50] |

3.2.8 | Meta-analytic partial dependence plot | 2017 | [51] |

3.3 | Time-to-event data: Meta-STEPP | 2016 | [52] |

4.1 | Tau square sensitivity plot | 1993 | [53] |

4.1.1 | Tau square sensitivity plot with posterior distribution | n.a. | n.a. |

4.2 | Leave-one-out sensitivity lineplot | 1998 | [37] |

4.2.1 | Leave-one-out sensitivity forest plot | 2000 | [54] |

4.3 | Baujat plot | 2002 | [55] |

4.4 | Number of additional participants required to obtain significance plot | 2003 | [56] |

4.5 | Influence plot | 2010 | [57] |

4.6 | Study influence and outlier diagnostic lineplots | 2010 | [57] |

4.7 | Metaplot | 2010 | [58] |

4.8 | GOSH plot | 2012 | [59] |

4.9 | Outlier probability plot | 2014 | [60] |

4.10 | Forward plot | 2016 | [61] |

4.11 | Impact of unmeasured confounding sensitivity plot | 2017 | [62] |

4.12 | Tau square estimator sensitivity plot | n.a. | n.a. |

4.13 | Cross-validated residual plot | n.a. | n.a. |

5.1 | Effect-size time-series plot | 1984 | [35] |

5.1.1 | Quality control chart: X bar chart | 2010 | [63] |

5.1.2 | Quality control chart: CUMSUM chart | 2010 | [63] |

5.2 | Cumulative meta-analysis plot | 1992 | [64] |

5.2.1 | Subgroup cumulative meta-analysis | n.a. | n.a. |

5.2.2 | Cumulative meta-analysis with monitoring boundaries | 1997 | [65] |

5.2.3 | Cumulative summary effect ratio plot | 1999 | [66] |

5.2.4 | Cumulative heterogeneity plot | 2004 | [67] |

5.2.5 | Cumulative Bayes factor plot | 2016 | [68] |

5.2.6 | Predicted Bayes factor for an additional study plot | 2017 | [69] |

5.3 | Plot of cumulative results | 2015 | [70] |

5.4 | Comparison of meta-analyses: Initial vs. subsequent evidence scatterplot | n.a. | n.a. |

6.1 | Histogram | n.a. | n.a. |

6.1.1 | Histogram, weighted | n.a. | n.a. |

6.1.2 | Histogram, subgroups | n.a. | n.a. |

6.2 | Boxplot | n.a. | n.a. |

6.2.1 | Boxplot, weighted | n.a. | n.a. |

6.3 | Stem-and-leaf display | n.a. | n.a. |

6.3.1 | Stem-and-leaf display, subgroups | n.a. | n.a. |

6.4 | Dot plot | n.a. | n.a. |

6.5 | Density plot | n.a. | n.a. |

6.5.1 | Density plot, weighted | n.a. | n.a. |

6.5.2 | Density plot, subgroups | n.a. | n.a. |

6.6 | Collection of study-effect likelihoods | 1993 | [71] |

6.7 | Normal quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot of effect sizes | 1998 | [72] |

7.1 | Bar chart | n.a. | n.a. |

7.2 | Pie chart | n.a. | n.a. |

7.3 | Line/dot chart with continuous covariate | n.a. | n.a. |

7.4 | Risk of bias plot | 2008 | [73] |

7.4.1 | Risk of bias summary plot | 2008 | [73] |

7.5 | Harvest plot | 2008 | [24] |

7.6 | PRISMA flow chart | 2009 | [74] |

7.7 | Comparison of meta-analyses: Veritas plot | 2009 | [75] |

7.8 | Error matrix display | 2010 | [76] |

7.8.1 | 3D error matrix plot | 2010 | [76] |

7.9 | Effect-direction plot | 2013 | [77] |

7.10 | Evidence-map bubble plot | 2016 | [78] |

7.11 | Dendrogram of meta-cluster analysis | 2017 | [79] |

8.1 | Dichotomous outcomes: L’Abbé plot | 1987 | [80] |

8.1.1 | Dichotomous outcomes: Subgroup L’Abbé plot | 1987 | [80] |

8.1.2 | Dichotomous outcomes: L’Abbé plot with summary effect contours | 1997 | [81] |

8.1.3 | Dichotomous outcomes: L’Abbé weight bubble plot | n.a. | n.a. |

8.1.4 | Dichotomous outcomes: Baseline graph | n.a. | n.a. |

8.2 | Time-to-event data: Study survival curves | 1989 | [82] |

8.3 | Bivariate meta-analysis plot | 1993 | [71] |

8.3.1 | Bivariate meta-analysis plot with confidence ellipse | 1993 | [71] |

8.3.2 | Cross-hairs scatterplot | 2016 | [83] |

8.3.3 | Cross-hairs scatterplot with subgroups | 2016 | [83] |

8.4 | Dichotomous outcomes: ROC plot | 1993 | [84] |

8.4.1 | Dichotomous outcomes: ROC plot with summary ROC curve | 1993 | [84] |

8.4.2 | Dichotomous outcomes: Cross-hairs plot | 2010 | [85] |

8.4.3 | Dichotomous outcomes: ROC plot with subgroups | n.a. | n.a. |

8.5 | Dichotomous outcomes: Treatment benefit vs. control plot per 100 patients | 2001 | [86] |

8.6 | Dichotomous outcomes: Olliaro display | 2010 | [87] |

8.6.1 | Dichotomous outcomes: Subgroup Olliaro display | 2010 | [87] |

8.7 | Dichotomous outcomes: Threshold plot | 2016 | [88] |

8.8 | Meta-analytic Bland-Altman plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.1 | Glass distributional overlap display | 1976 | [5] |

9.2 | Time-to-event data: Summary survival curve | 1989 | [82] |

9.2.1 | Time-to-event data: Subgroup survival curves | 1989 | [82] |

9.3 | Summary path diagram (SEM) | 1991 | [89] |

9.4 |
Genetic data: Summary q value plot
| 2002 | [90] |

9.5 | Genetic data: Summary Q-Q plot | 2003 | [91] |

9.6 | Hattie barometer display | 2008 | [92] |

9.7 | Comparison of meta-analyses: FEM vs. REM summary estimates | 2011 | [93] |

9.8 | Comparison of meta-analyses: Heterogeneity | 2011 | [93] |

9.9 | Comparison of meta-analyses: Tau square estimates | 2011 | [93] |

9.10 | Genetic data: Meta-analytic circos plot | 2012 | [94] |

9.11 | Fishbone diagram | 2017 | [95] |

9.12 | Evidence flowers | 2018 | [96] |

9.13 | Likelihood, prior, or posterior distribution plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.13.1 | Bootstrap chart | n.a. | n.a. |

9.13.2 | Likelihood, confidence, or posterior region plot for two parameters | n.a. | n.a. |

9.13.3 | Predictive distribution or interval plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.14 | Dichotomous outcomes: Fagan nomogram | n.a. | n.a. |

9.14.1 | Dichotomous outcomes: Probability-modifying plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.15 | Genetic data: Meta-analytic Manhattan plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.15.1 | Genetic data: Meta-analytic Miami plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.15.2 | Genetic data: Meta-analytic regional association plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.16 | Genetic data: Meta-analytic volcano plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.17 | Genetic data: Position-summary line plot | n.a. | n.a. |

9.18 | Genetic data: Summary heat map | n.a. | n.a. |

9.19 | Meta-analytic neuroimaging plot | n.a. | n.a. |

10.1 | Schweder-Spjøtvoll plot | 1982 | [97] |

10.2 | Publication-probability plot (selection model) | 1992 | [98] |

10.3 | Sensitivity contour plot (selection model) | 2000 | [99] |

10.4 | Test of excess significance alpha sensitivity plot | 2007 | [100] |

10.5 | Caliper test display | 2008 | [101] |

10.6 | Plot of truncated normal distribution | 2008 | [102] |

10.7 | Genetic data: P-M plot | 2012 | [103] |

10.8 |
p-curve
| 2014 | [104] |

10.8.1 |
p-curve sensitivity plot
| 2016 | [105] |

10.9 |
p-value plot for selection bias (selection model)
| 2015 | [106] |

10.10 | Treatment effect plot (selection model) | 2015 | [106] |

10.11 | Albatross plot | 2017 | [107] |

10.11.1 | Albatross subgroup plot | 2017 | [107] |

10.12 | Weighted effect-size density (selection model) | n.a. | n.a. |

10.13 | Maximum-bias forest plot | n.a. | n.a. |

11.1 | Network graph | 2002 | [108] |

11.1.1 | Flow-of-evidence graph | 2013 | [109] |

11.1.2 | 3D network graph | 2017 | [110] |

11.1.3 | Matrix display of treatment comparisons | n.a. | n.a. |

11.2 | Contrast forest plot | 2008 | [111] |

11.2.1 | Summary forest plot matrix | 2014 | [112] |

11.2.2 | Summary forest plot table | 2014 | [112] |

11.2.3 | Network indirect path decomposition forest plot | 2014 | [26] |

11.2.4 | Invariant interval forest plot | 2017 | [113] |

11.3 | Checkerboard unit plot | 2008 | [114] |

11.4 | Treatment dissimilarity table plot | 2008 | [115] |

11.4.1 | MDS inconsistency plot | 2008 | [115] |

11.5 | Ranking table plot | 2009 | [116] |

11.5.1 | Barplot of ranking probabilities | 2011 | [13] |

11.5.2 | Median rank chart | 2014 | [112] |

11.5.3 | Ranking and ranking probability for different outcome preferences | 2016 | [117] |

11.5.4 | Ranking scatterplot for single outcome | 2013 | [14] |

11.6 | Inconsistency plot | 2009 | [118] |

11.7 | Rankogram (cumulative or absolute) | 2009 | [119] |

11.7.1 | Probability to be within a range of the best treatment plot | 2011 | [11] |

11.8 | Network meta-regression plot | 2009 | [120] |

11.8.1 | Contribution network meta-regression plot | 2018 | [121] |

11.8.2 | Heat network meta-regression plot | 2018 | [121] |

11.9 | Diagnostic network plot (leverage, deviance, residuals) | 2009 | [120] |

11.10 | Comparison-adjusted funnel plot | 2013 | [14] |

11.11 | Contribution plot | 2013 | [25] |

11.12 | Netheat plot | 2013 | [25] |

11.13 | Shade plot for contrast weights of treatment comparison | 2013 | [122] |

11.14 |
Shade plot for p values of treatment comparison
| 2013 | [122] |

11.15 | Minimal parallelism vs. mean path length scatterplot | 2013 | [109] |

11.16 | Hsu mean-mean plot | 2013 | [122] |

11.17 | Clustered ranking plot for two outcomes | 2013 | [14] |

11.18 | Network risk of bias chart | 2014 | [123] |

11.18.1 | Network risk of bias direct evidence contribution chart | 2014 | [123] |

11.19 | Bland-Altman heterogeneity plot | 2015 | [106] |

11.20 | Rank heat plot | 2016 | [124] |

11.21 | Hasse diagram | 2017 | [125] |

11.22 | Partial orderings for two outcomes plot | 2017 | [125] |

11.22.1 | Biplot of partial orderings for more than two outcomes | 2017 | [126] |

11.23 | Invariant region plot | 2017 | [113] |

11.24 | Bivariate network meta-analysis crosshair plot | 2018 | [127] |

11.25 | Covariate distribution plot | 2018 | [121] |

11.26 | Covariate contribution scatterplot | 2018 | [121] |

11.27 | Covariate contribution heat plot | 2018 | [121] |

11.28 | Network meta-analysis survival plot | n.a. | n.a. |