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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies (n = 148)

From: Population segmentation of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and its clinical applications - a scoping review

Characteristics of studies N (%)
Year of study
 Before Year 2000 3 (2.0)
 Year 2000–2010 32 (21.6)
 Year 2011–2020 113 (76.4)
Continent of study
 Asia 58 (39.2)
 Europe 40 (27.0)
 North America 40 (27.0)
 Australia 3 (2.0)
 South America 3 (2.0)
 Cross-continents 4 (2.7)
Country of study
 USA 33 (22.3)
 China 17 (11.5)
 Italy 11 (7.4)
 Canada 6 (4.1)
 Netherlands 6 (4.1)
 Korea 6 (4.1)
 Singapore 5 (3.4)
 Australia 3 (2.0)
 Hong Kong 4 (2.7)
 Japan 4 (2.7)
 Multi-countries 5 (3.4)
 Others 48 (32.4)
Study design
 Cross-sectional study 92 (62.1)
 Cohort study 50 (33.8)
  Prospective cohort study 21 (14.2)
  Retrospective cohort study 29 (19.5)
 Record linkage study 2 (1.4)
  Prospective record linkage study 1 (0.7)
  Retrospective record linkage study 1 (0.7)
 Randomized controlled trials 4 (2.7)
Patient population
  ≤ 500 37 (25)
 501–1000 21 (14.2)
 1001 – 5000 43 (29.1)
 5001 – 10,000 11 (7.4)
 10,001–50,000 17 (11.5)
 50,001–100,000 7 (4.7)
 100,001–500,000 9 (6.1)
 500,000 – 1000,000 2 (1.4)
  > 1000,000 1 (0.7)
Type 2 diabetes subgroups
 Adult diabetics (across all age ranges) 137 (92.6)
 Elderly (≥ 65 years old) 8 (5.4)
 Young (≤ 40 years old) 2 (1.4)
 Women with singleton pregnancy 1 (0.7)
Study setting (Healthcare)a
 Primary 40 (27.0)
 Tertiary 68 (45.9)
 Mixed 10 (6.8)
 Not applicable or not specified 30 (20.3)
Data source
 Primary 70 (47.3)
 Secondary 76 (51.4)
 Mixed (Primary and Secondary) 2 (1.4)
  1. a – There were no studies performed in secondary healthcare settings