Skip to main content

Table 2 Variables utilized for population segmentation analyses (N = 148)

From: Population segmentation of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and its clinical applications - a scoping review

Variables Na Selected examples References
Socio-demographic 66   
 Race and/or ethnicity 17   [23, 25, 36,37,38, 40, 44, 45, 79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87]
 Patients’ age 16 Young: ≤ 45 years old, Older: > 45 years old [26, 33, 39, 43, 51, 87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97]
 Gender 12   [41, 56, 67, 72, 79, 92, 94, 97,98,99,100,101]
 Obesity / weight related 7   
  - Body mass index / obesity 6   [17, 49, 58, 59, 102, 103]
  - Waist circumference 1   [59]
  - Weight change over time 1   [104]
 Lifestyle factors 6   
  - Level / patterns of physical activity 4   [20, 32, 57, 105]
  - Lifestyle patterns 3 Morningness-eveningness, sleep quality, Consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes [106] [20, 106, 107]
 Dietary factors / patterns 6 e.g. intake of coffee, high fat dietary pattern score [57, 108,109,110,111,112]
 Education related 4   
  - Level of literacy 2   [48, 107]
  - Level of health literacy 1   [18]
  - Verbal intelligence 1 Groningen Intelligence Test [113] [113]
 Economic related factors 4   
  - Household income 2   [48, 114]
  - Socio-economic status of patients 1   [115]
  - Employment status 1   [107]
 Smoking 4   
  - Current smoking status 3   [20, 34, 57]
  - Smoking duration 1   [107]
 Alcohol consumption 1   [57]
 Citizenship (immigrant / non-immigrant) 1   [116]
 Living in Northern vs Southern latitudes 1   [117]
 Marital status 1   [107]
Diabetes related 54   
 Hba1c related 14   
  - Hba1c level 7   [74, 76, 103, 118,119,120,121]
  - Patterns, trends and trajectories 6   [11, 75, 122,123,124,125]
  - Hba1c variability 2   [125, 126]
 Diabetes related complications 13   
  - Presence of albuminuria 4   [26, 54, 68, 127]
  - Presence of complications e.g. cardiometabolic, microvascular diseases 3   [10, 50, 128]
  - Presence of diabetic retinopathy 2   [129, 130]
  - Severity of albuminuria 1   [54]
  - Presence of diabetic nephropathy 1   [130]
  - Severity of diabetic neuropathy 1   [131]
  - Severity of diabetic kidney disease 1   [132]
  - Severity of diabetes related complications 1   [133]
  - Medically attended hypoglycemia 1   [30]
 Diabetes treatment related 7   
  - Types of anti-diabetic agents used 5   [10, 26, 69, 134, 135]
  - Dose of anti-diabetic agents 1   [136]
  - Adherence to anti-diabetic agents 1   [31]
 Other laboratory parameters 5   
  - Presence / levels of islet cells auto-immune antibodies levels 4   [66, 103, 137, 138]
  - Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypepide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) 1   [70]
 Age at T2DM diagnosis 5   [60, 78, 93, 103, 139]
 Diabetes related risk factors 5   
  - Number of risk factors 3 Clinical risk groups [52, 140, 141]
  - Total metabolic score 2   [61, 142]
 Fasting plasma glucose 3   
  - Variability of fasting plasma glucose levels 3   [55, 73, 143]
  - Mean fasting plasma glucose levels 2   [73, 143]
 Duration of T2DM 4   [103, 120, 144, 145]
 Subtypes of T2DM 1 Ketosis prone T2DM or previously diagnosed T2DM with diabetic ketoacidosis [146] [146]
 Status of T2DM at cancer diagnosis 1 Insulin resistant /insulin sensitive [24] [24]
 Characteristics of T2DM 1 Ketosis [134]
 Severity of diabetes distress 1 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale scores [147] [147]
 Presence of metabolic disorder 1   [10]
 Reasons for not participating in diabetes related progam 1   [148]
Non-diabetes medical related factors 18   
 Chronic kidney disease 6   
  - Severity of chronic kidney disease 4   [26, 65, 68, 132]
  - Presence of chronic kidney disease 2   [10, 56]
 Hypertension related 5   
  - Blood pressure control, variability 2   [149, 150]
  - Presence of hypertension 1   [102]
  - Presence of resistance hypertension 1   [71]
  - Number of anti-hypertensive agents 1   [71]
 Cardiovascular related 3   
  - Number of cardiovascular risk factors 1   [50]
  - Presence of atherosclerosis 1   [51]
  - Echocardiographic variables 1   [102]
 Physical function status related 2   
  - Physical functional status 1   [151]
  - Frailty 1   [152]
 Laboratory related parameters 2   
  - Blood biochemistries / full blood count 1   [26]
  - Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels 1   [63]
 Comorbidities of patients (overall) 1   [128]
 Overall medication usage 1   [26]
 Severity of pain 1   [131]
 Microaneurysm turnover and for the central retinal thickness 1   [153]
Psychiatric or psychological related factors 16   
 Depression or anxiety related 9   
  - Presence and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms 3   [42, 154, 155]
  - Severity of depression 3   [21, 35, 42]
  - Presence of depression 2   [27, 156]
  - Patterns of depression 1 Persistant depressive symptoms, new depressive symptoms, remitted depressive symptoms, no or few depressive symptoms [29] [29]
  - Severity of anxiety symptoms 1   [46]
 Other psychiatric disorders / symptoms related factors 5   
  - Presence of sleep disturbance, fatigue 2   [42, 131]
  - Number of psychiatric conditions 1   [22]
  - Severity of psychiatric symptoms 1 Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score [35]
  - Cognitive status 1   [62]
 Health related quality of life 3   [118, 131, 157]
 Patient perceptions related factors 2   
  - Illness perception 1   [158]
  - Perceived self-efficacy 1   [35]
  - Perceived social support 1   [35]
 Personality traits differences 1   [159]
Healthcare systems related 6   
 Type of healthcare utilization 2   [160, 161]
 Type or specialty of care provider 2   [64, 77]
 Hospital admission 1   [53]
 Frequency of emergency department presentation 1   [162]
  1. Abbreviations: N Number of studies
  2. aThe number of unique studies were reported for the subtotals within and for each domain (in bold) to avoid double counting of studies