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Table 3 Descriptive summary of the characteristics of the included studies

From: A scoping review of studies using observational data to optimise dynamic treatment regimens

  Clinical focus  
Characteristic No Yes Overall
Publications (n) 45 18 63
Year published (%)
 1995 to 1999 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (2)
 2000 to 2004 2 (4) 0 (0) 2 (3)
 2005 to 2009 6 (13) 3 (17) 9 (14)
 2010 to 2014 12 (27) 6 (33) 18 (29)
 2015 to 2019 18 (40) 7 (39) 25 (40)
 2020 6 (13) 2 (11) 8 (13)
Clinical area (%)
 Cancer 7 (16) 1 (6) 8 (13)
 Diabetes 6 (13) 0 (0) 6 (10)
 HIV/AIDS 15 (33) 12 (67) 27 (43)
 Other 14 (31) 5 (28) 19 (30)
 Thrombosis 3 (7) 0 (0) 3 (5)
Outcome type (%)
 Binary 4 (9) 3 (17) 7 (11)
 Categorical 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (2)
 Continuous 17 (38) 2 (11) 19 (30)
 Time-to-event 23 (51) 13 (72) 36 (57)
Participants (median [IQR]) 2604 [710, 13,039] 9793 [3084, 39,887] 3882 [1420, 23,602]
Funding source/s (%)
 Non-profit 4 (9) 2 (11) 6 (10)
 Not reported 9 (20) 1 (6) 10 (16)
 Public 35 (78) 16 (89) 51 (81)
Statistical method/s (%)
 G-estimation 4 (9) 0 (0) 4 (6)
 Inverse probability weighting 17 (38) 9 (50) 26 (41)
 Other 9 (20) 1 (6) 10 (16)
 Parametric G-formula 8 (18) 8 (44) 16 (25)
 Q-learning 9 (20) 1 (6) 10 (16)
 Regret regression 3 (7) 0 (0) 3 (5)
 TMLE 4 (9) 0 (0) 4 (6)
Missing data addressed (%) 24 (53) 8 (44) 32 (51)
Model evaluation included (%) 22 (49) 8 (44) 30 (48)
Model selection included (%) 19 (42) 15 (83) 34 (54)
Sensitivity analysis included (%) 23 (51) 15 (83) 38 (60)
Software included (%)
 No 25 (56) 17 (94) 42 (67)
 R 18 (40) 0 (0) 18 (29)
 SAS 2 (4) 1 (6) 3 (5)
  1. Abbreviations: AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, IQR Inter-quartile range, TMLE Targeted maximum likelihood (minimum loss-based) estimation. Note that each study could have multiple funding sources and statistical methods. Percentages are rounded and taken with respect to number of publications in each column
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