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Table 1 Trials for COVID-19 treatment

From: Analysis of clinical and methodological characteristics of early COVID-19 treatment clinical trials: so much work, so many lost opportunities

  Pharmacotherapy Traditional Chinese Medicine Mesenchymal stem cells and NK cells Advanced life-support strategies Convalescent plasma and immunoglobulins Others
Number of trials – no. (%) 349 (60) 92 (16) 39 (7) 27 (5) 35 (6) 44 (8)
Maximal inclusion age – no. (%)
 ≥ 65 115 (33) 56 (61) 26 (67) 10 (37) 12 (34) 17 (39)
 ≥ 80 61 (17) 26 (28) 7 (18) 9 (33) 6 (17) 6 (14)
Not specified or unknowna 228 (65) 32 (35) 12 (31) 17 (63) 20 (57) 27 (61)
Inclusion of severe COVID-19 – no. (%)
 Yes 174 (50) 23 (25) 28 (72) 16 (59) 22 (63) 16 (36)
 No 86 (25) 30 (33) 2 (5) 10 (37) 4 (11) 14 (32)
No information 89 (26) 39 (42) 9 (23) 1 (4) 9 (26) 14 (32)
Inclusion of critical COVID-19 – no. (%)
 Yes 70 (20) 3 (3) 12 (31) 17 (63) 16 (46) 8 (18)
 No 165 (47) 48 (52) 9 (23) 6 (22) 9 (26) 22 (50)
No information 114 (33) 41 (45) 18 (46) 4 (15) 10 (29) 14 (32)
Inclusion of participants with cancer – no. (%)
 Yes 15 (4) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2)
 No 49 (14) 31 (34) 27 (69) 3 (11) 4 (11) 11 (25)
No information 285 (82) 58 (63) 12 (31) 24 (89) 31 (89) 32 (73)
Inclusion of participants with COPD – no. (%)
 Yes 16 (5) 3 (3) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 No 31 (9) 31 (34) 7 (18) 3 (11) 3 (9) 6 (14)
No information 302 (87) 58 (63) 32 (82) 23 (85) 32 (91) 38 (86)
Inclusion of participants with diabetes – no. (%)
 Yes 16 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 No 16 (5) 11 (12) 2 (5) 3 (11) 1 (3) 6 (14)
No information 317 (91) 81 (88) 37 (95) 23 (85) 34 (97) 38 (86)
Inclusion of participants with heart disease – no. (%)
 Yes 30 (9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 1 (2)
 No 52 (15) 23 (25) 3 (8) 1 (4) 4 (11) 5 (11)
No information 267 (77) 69 (75) 36 (92) 25 (93) 31 (89) 38 (86)
Inclusion of participants with hypertension – no. (%)
 Yes 19 (5) 2 (2) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 No 8 (2) 4 (4) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 1 (2)
No information 322 (92) 86 (93) 39 (100) 25 (93) 35 (100) 43 (98)
Inclusion of immunocompromised participants – no. (%)
 Yes 9 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 No 82 (23) 27 (29) 13 (33) 2 (7) 5 (14) 9 (20)
No information 258 (74) 65 (71) 26 (67) 25 (93) 30 (86) 35 (80)
Main geographical locations – no. (%) China 110 (32)
Single European country 103 (30)
United States 47 (13)
China 90 (98)
Single African country 1 (1)
No information 1 (1)
China 28 (72)
Single European country 6 (15)
Single American country 2 (5)
China 10 (37)
Single European country 9 (33)
United States 6 (22)
China 11 (31)
Single European country 9 (26)
United States 6 (17)
China 21 (48)
United States 8 (18)
Single European country 7 (16)
Primary endpoints used – no. (%)
 Mortality 43 (13) 7 (8) 3 (8) 8 (30) 9 (26) 5 (11)
 Clinical status (WHO Scales) 38 (11) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (6) 3 (7)
 Length of hospitalization 14 (4) 8 (9) 2 (5) 2 (7) 2 (6) 3 (7)
Randomised trials – no. (%)
 Yes 275 (79) 49 (53) 19 (49) 13 (48) 16 (46) 26 (59)
 No 74 (21) 43 (47) 20 (51) 14 (52) 19 (54) 18 (41)
Multicentre trials – no. (%)
 Yes 129 (37) 37 (40) 11 (28) 6 (22) 13 (37) 15 (34)
 No 164 (47) 47 (51) 26 (67) 17 (63) 16 (46) 25 (57)
No information 56 (16) 8 (9) 2 (5) 4 (15) 6 (17) 4 (9)
Industry-funded – no. (%)
 Yes 73 (21) 12 (13) 9 (23) 2 (7) 6 (17) 7 (16)
 No 276 (79) 80 (87) 30 (77) 25 (93) 29 (83) 37 (84)
Median sample size calculated (IQR) – no. 123.5 (60–333) 120 (72–300) 30 (20–48) 44 (20–190.5) 50 (20–117.5) 70 (40–200)
Median expected trial duration (IQR) – days 181 (98.5–365) 155 (90–337) 314 (188–437.5) 217 (92–396) 214 (92–364) 262.5 (90–381.75)
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IQR interquartile range
  2. Note: The sum of the columns is higher than 580 because some trials assess more than one intervention
  3. aMost of these trials (93%) specify a minimal inclusion age, without specifying a maximal inclusion age