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Table 4 Results from SPMMs fit using LASSO penalty for assessing the effect of occupational exposures on the occurrence of COPD

From: LASSO type penalized spline regression for binary data

  Odds Ratio (95% CI) a
  Unadjusted Adjusted
Age - *
Pack Years - *
BMI - *
Sex (Men) - **
Occupation   
Hard rock mining 1.6 (1.1, 2.4) 1.1 (0.7, 1.8)
Coal mining 3.5 (1.5, 8.0) 1.7(0.7, 4.3)
Working with asbestos 1.4 (1.1, 2.0) 0.8 (0.5, 1.1)
Chemical/plastics manufacturing 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5)
Foundry/steel milling 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) 1.0 (0.7, 1.5)
Welding 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6)
Saw-milling 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) 1.2 (0.8, 1.8)
  1. aAdjusted ORs were obtained from the SPMM as shown in (17) adjusting for pack years, age, sex and BMI
  2. * Covariates were modeled using penalized splines. A summary of odds ratio and CI were not provided by the method; see Fig. 3 for smooth curves when occupation was hard rock mining
  3. ** OR = 1.4 (1.3, 1.6) when occupation was hard rock mining