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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of patient cohorts

From: Utilizing machine learning dimensionality reduction for risk stratification of chest pain patients in the emergency department

  Total (n = 795) MACE (n = 247) Non-MACE (n = 548) p-value
Age, median (IQR) 60 (51–68) 61 (54–68) 59 (50–68) 0.035
Male gender, n (%) 542 (68.2) 188 (76.1) 354 (64.6) 0.002
Race, n (%)     0.623
 Chinese 492 (61.9) 159 (64.4) 333 (60.8) 0.374
 Indian 129 (16.2) 34 (13.8) 95 (17.3) 0.246
 Malay 150 (18.9) 46 (18.6) 104 (19.0) 0.984
 Other 24 (3.0) 8 (3.2) 16 (2.9) 0.984
Vital signs, median (IQR)
 Temperature (°C) 36.4 (36.0–36.7) 36.3 (36.0–36.7) 36.4 (36.0–36.7) 0.793
 Heart rate (beats/min) 76 (67–89) 80 (69–92.5) 75 (66–87) 0.03
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 18 (17–18) 18 (17–18) 18 (17–18) 0.716
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138 (123.0–159.0) 142 (123.5–165.5) 137 (122.0–156.2) 0.037
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.0 (68.0–86.0) 78.0 (70.0–89.0) 75.0 (67.0–84.0) 0.001
 SpO2 (%) 99.0 (97.0–100.0) 99.0 (97.0–100.0) 99.0 (97.0–100.0) 0.842
 Pain score 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 0.008
 Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 15.0 (15.0–15.0) 15.0 (15.0–15.0) 15.0 (15.0–15.0) 0.121
Medical history, n (%)
 Ischaemic heart disease 343 (43.1) 115 (46.6) 228 (41.6) 0.22
 Diabetes 278 (35.0) 106 (42.9) 172 (31.4) 0.002
 Hypertension 509 (64.0) 161 (65.2) 348 (63.5) 0.707
 Hypercholesterolaemia 476 (59.9) 151 (61.1) 325 (59.3) 0.683
 Stroke 58 (7.3) 15 (6.1) 43 (7.8) 0.458
 Cancer 29 (3.6) 7 (2.8) 22 (4.0) 0.537
 Respiratory disease 31 (3.9) 5 (2.0) 26 (4.7) 0.102
 Chronic kidney disease 87 (10.9) 26 (10.5) 61 (11.1) 0.896
 Congestive heart failure 38 (4.8) 9 (3.6) 29 (5.3) 0.407
 History of PCI 199 (25.0) 68 (27.5) 131 (23.9) 0.316
 History of CABG 71 (8.9) 26 (10.5) 45 (8.2) 0.355
 History of AMI 133 (16.7) 48 (19.4) 85 (15.5) 0.205
 Active smoker 197 (24.8) 73 (29.6) 124 (22.6) 0.045
ECG pathology, n (%)
 ST elevation 65 (8.2) 48 (19.4) 17 (3.1) < 0.001
 ST depression 92 (11.6) 69 (27.9) 23 (4.2) < 0.001
 T wave inversion 209 (26.3) 86 (34.8) 123 (22.4) < 0.001
 Pathological Q wave 86 (10.8) 51 (20.6) 35 (6.4) < 0.001
 QTc prolongation 174 (21.9) 73 (29.6) 101 (18.4) 0.001
 Left axis deviation 64 (8.1) 16 (6.5) 48 (8.8) 0.34
 Right axis deviation 16 (2.0) 6 (2.4) 10 (1.8) 0.773
 Left bundle branch block 8 (1.0) 3 (1.2) 5 (0.9) 0.991
 Right bundle branch block 56 (7.0) 14 (5.7) 42 (7.7) 0.385
 Interventricular conduction delay 30 (3.8) 13 (5.3) 17 (3.1) 0.201
 Left atrial abnormality 12 (1.5) 4 (1.6) 8 (1.5) 0.886
 Left ventricular hypertrophy 103 (13.0) 38 (15.4) 65 (11.9) 0.21
 Right ventricular hypertrophy 6 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.9) 0.747
Laboratory findings, median (IQR)
 Troponin (ng/L) 0 (0–39.5) 40 (10–170) 0 (0–15.2) < 0.001
 Creatine kinase-MB 2.4 (1.8–3.2) 2.7 (2.1–6.0) 2.4 (1.7–2.7) < 0.001
Clinical scores, median (IQR)
 HEART 5.0 (4.0 to 7.0) 7.0 (6.0 to 8.0) 4.0 (3.0 to 6.0) < 0.001
 TIMI 2.0 (1.0 to 4.0) 3.0 (2.0 to 4.0) 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) < 0.001
 GRACE 104.0 (83.5 to 128.0) 119.0 (97.0 to 139.0) 98.0 (78.0 to 125.0) < 0.001
  1. IQR interquartile range, MACE major adverse cardiac events, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, AMI acute myocardial infarction, HEART History, ECG, Age, Risk factors and Troponin, TIMI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction, GRACE Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events