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Table 4 Type I error and power of seven randomization designs under a time trend

From: A roadmap to using randomization in clinical trials

  Type I error rate Power
Without adjustment for serum bilirubin With adjustment for serum bilirubin Without adjustment for serum bilirubin With adjustment for serum bilirubin
Population model-based approach to statistical inference
CRD 0.0481 0.0504 0.6114 0.9694
Rand 0.0517 0.0511 0.6193 0.9701
TBD 0.1451 0.0511 0.5856 0.9702
PBD(2) 0.0064 0.0511 0.6540 0.9704
PBD(4) 0.0073 0.0518 0.6612 0.9688
BSD(3) 0.0084 0.0541 0.6547 0.9697
GBCD(2) 0.0185 0.0546 0.6367 0.9699
Randomization-based approach to statistical inference
CRD 0.049 0.052 0.617 0.970
Rand 0.047 0.048 0.602 0.973
TBD 0.047 0.048 0.367 0.968
PBD(2) 0.048 0.048 0.901 0.969
PBD(4) 0.047 0.047 0.874 0.971
BSD(3) 0.048 0.051 0.860 0.964
GBCD(2) 0.050 0.049 0.803 0.971