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Table 3 Examples of included studies

From: A scoping review of Q-methodology in healthcare research


Clarke & Holt46

Killam, Mossey, Montgomery & Timmermans109

Protiére, Baker, Genre, Goncalves & Viens110

Study aim

To identify and explore the perspectives of nurses and other multidisciplinary stroke team members on nurses’ practice in stroke rehabilitation

To explore undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students’ understanding of clinical safety

To elicit stakeholders’ viewpoints about the dimensions at stake in determining marketing authorisation (MA) and about the processes used to grant MA (including whether the cost of the treatment should be considered in the MA procedure)


Perceptions of treatment/change/intervention



Development of the Q-set

Data from previous study

Refined from a concourse used in a previous Q study

Review of the literature; semi-structured interviews

Number of statements in Q-set




Ranking scale and anchors

Most disagree (-4) to Most agree (+ 4)

Most disagree (-5) to Most agree (+ 5)

Most disagree (-4) to Most agree (+ 4)

Example statement

Nurses are the most appropriate professional to liaise between stroke survivors, families and the stroke unit team

The student makes independent clinical decisions beyond his/her competency

If a treatment can prolong lifespan, even by one month, it should be given MA whatever its cost to society

Delivery method



Online (Flash Q)


63 healthcare employees regularly working with/visiting patients on a stroke unit (registered nurse, healthcare assistant, therapist, physician, dietician, social worker, clinical psychologist, orthoptist)

68 first year nursing students

48 healthcare employees (oncologists, healthcare decision makers, individuals from the pharmaceutical industry) and 104 consumers (patients; members of the general population)


PCA; Varimax; PQMethod

Centroid; Varimax; PQMethod

PCA; Manual rotation; PQMethod

Other methods

Post-sorting questions/additional comments; semi-structured interviews

Post-sorting group discussion

Post-sorting questions/additional comments


n = 4

n = 4

n = 3


1. Integrate rehabilitation principles in routine nursing practice; 2. Physical care activity takes priority over rehabilitation principles; 3. Support the wider stroke team to provide stroke rehabilitation; 4. Be cautious about nurse’ engagement in stroke rehabilitation practice

1. Overwhelming sense of inner discomfort; 2. Practicing contrary to conventions; 3. Lacking in professional integrity; 4. Disharmonising relations

1. Quality of life, opportunity cost and participative democracy; 2. Quality of life and patient centeredness; 3. Length of life

Variance explained


Not reported


Study implications

Results gave insight into similarities and differences in viewpoints amongst clinical staff on nursing practices in stroke units. Study findings demonstrated the need for structured competency-based multidisciplinary training in rehabilitation skills to facilitate partnerships between registered nurses and healthcare assistants in stroke rehabilitation

The study found that compromised clinical safety is a complex concept involving personal, professional and programic variables. The authors suggested that study findings could be used to develop learning environments that are safety-oriented and student-centred

Based on the study findings, the authors indicated that there is a need for transparency and re-evaluation of treatments after they have received marketing authorisation. They also suggest that authorisation criteria should include a greater focus on quality of life in the context of advances cancer care