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Table 2 Distribution of pain indicators among newly admitted nursing home residents, by level of cognitive impairment (n = 1,930,192)a

From: Multiple imputation to quantify misclassification in observational studies of the cognitively impaired: an application for pain assessment in nursing home residents

Pain Indicators Level of Cognitive Impairment
No/Mild, % (n = 1,160,053) Moderate, % (n = 430,442) Severe, % (n = 339,697)
n % n % n %
Staff-Assessed Pain 38,018   33,967   722,310  
 Yes   50.8   42.0   36.2
 No   49.2   58.0   63.8
Resident-Reported Pain 1,117,134   397,072   271,192  
 Yes   66.0   49.4   34.0
 No   34.0   50.6   66.0
Resident-reported pain detailsb
 Pain Frequency 1,115,210   394,128   265,555  
  No pain   34.1   51.0   67.4
  Rarely   4.9   5.0   4.1
  Occasionally   34.2   27.0   19.3
  Frequently   21.0   13.3   7.4
  Almost Constantly   5.8   3.7   1.8
 Pain Numeric Rating 942,528   338,813   232,527  
  Median (25TH,75TH %)   4 (0–6)   0 (0–5)   0 (0–0)
 Pain Verbal Descriptor Scale 564,584   258,391   212,453  
  No pain   67.3   77.7   84.2
  Mild   11.9   9.1   7.1
  Moderate   17.4   11.0   7.3
  Severe   3.1   2.0   1.3
  Very Severe   0.3   0.2   0.2
 Pharmacologic Pain Management 1,159,468   430,198   339,472  
  Scheduled + PRN   28.0   19.3   13.6
  Scheduled Only   8.0   10.0   11.7
  PRN Only   40.5   34.5   28.5
  None   23.6   36.3   46.3
  1. aResidents with at least one valid response to pain items were included in the overall study, but excluded from item-specific analyses if they lacked a valid response to the item of interest. As such, we present the sample size specific to each estimate
  2. bFor resident-reported details, values were set to “no pain” if explicitly documented as “no pain” or if missing and staff-assessed or resident-reported pain was “no pain”