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Table 4 Differences between expected and observed any pain responses among nursing home residents with moderate or severe cognitive impairment, stratified by demographic variables (n = 770,139)

From: Multiple imputation to quantify misclassification in observational studies of the cognitively impaired: an application for pain assessment in nursing home residents

Strata Moderate Cognitive Impairment Severe Cognitive Impairment
n ∆ (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) n ∆ (95% CI)
Gender
 Women 248,483 -5.3 (-6.2 to -4.4) 207,577 -10.8 (-11.6 to -10.0)
 Men 179,669 -4.3 (-5.2 to -3.5) 130,294 -9.0 (-9.7 to -8.2)
Pain Rx
 Scheduled + PRN 82,455 -10.2 (-11.5 to -8.8) 45,800 -20.3 (-21.5 to -19.0)
 Scheduled Only 42,559 13.7 (12.5 to 15.0) 39,434 3.6 (2.3 to 4.8)
 PRN Only 147,510 -15.0 (-16.3 to -13.8) 96,105 -25.7 (-26.9 to -24.4)
 None 155,432 2.4 (2.0 to 2.9) 156,357 -1.0 (-1.5 to -0.5)
Fracture
 Yes 75,901 -4.4 (-5.5 to -3.3) 55,280 -11.6 (-12.7 to -10.6)
 No 352,197 -5.0 (-5.8 to -4.1) 282,560 -9.8 (-10.5 to -9.1)
Arthritis
 Yes 99,964 -4.7 (-5.5 to -3.7) 70,274 -11.2 (-12.1 to -10.4)
 No 328,132 -4.9 (-5.8 to -4.1) 267,560 -9.8 (-10.6 to -9.1)
  1. ∆: Absolute difference in percentage between calculated as percentage observed – percentage expected