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Table 1 Stepwise approach for applying the reproducibility concept to systematic reviews

From: A new method for testing reproducibility in systematic reviews was developed, but needs more testing

Step 1 (obligatory): replicate all searches in bibliographic databases and combine them in one database
Step 2 (obligatory; percentage can be increased, e.g. in case of review including a small number of studies): draw a 25% random sample
Step 3 (obligatory): perform study selection (title&abstract and full-text) in the same way as reported, and applying the same criteria as reported in the original SR
Step 4 (obligatory): extract data for the main outcomes (e.g. primary outcomes, outcomes shown in the main text only (i. e. excluding supplementary materials))
Step 5 (obligatory): assess risk of bias/methodological quality as in the original SR
Step 6 (optionala): perform evidence synthesis as in the original SR. This might include meta-analyses (also including studies found to meet eligibility criteria not included in the original review) and applying systems for assessing the quality of evidence such as GRADE, for example
  1. a step 6 is optional as this is likely to need another approach than using the 25% sample