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Table 1 Non–modifiable risk factors

From: Analytical challenges in estimating the effect of exposures that are bounded by follow-up time: experiences from the Blood Stream Infection—Focus on Outcomes study

Type Factors
Organisational Centre (5 centres)
Admission from nursing- or care home
Length of prior in-patient stay (days)
Speciality of consultant on day 0a
Organism / infection Organism identity (target organism group): 6 categories (ESBL producer, non-ESBL producing E.coli, MRSA, MSSA, P. aeruginosa and Candida)
Source of infection (CDC criteria)
Patient measures Age
Gender
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
Patient medical history (up to date 0) Leukaemia within 5 years before date 0
Lymphoma within 5 years before date 0
Solid tumour within 5 years before date 0
Any other (second) tumour within 5 years before date 0
Chemotherapy in month before date 0
Surgery requiring overnight stay within 7 days before date 0
Burn requiring hospital admission within 7 days before date 0
Cardiac arrest within 7 days before date 0
Myocardial infarction, symptomatic within 7 days before date 0
Renal support within 7 days before date 0
Patient comorbidities ongoing at date 0 Disease markers
Ascites
Diabetes without organ damage
Diabetes with organ damage
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Congestive heart failure
Connective tissue disease
Cerebrovascular disease
Dementia
Hemiplegia
Peptic ulcer disease
Peripheral vascular disease
Potentially removable sources of infection
Abscess at time 0
Infected foreign body (non-surgical) at time 0
Infected prosthesis or similar surgical item at time 0
Infection severity measures at or nearest before time 0 Signs
Mental Disorientation (scale 0–4) at time 0
Temperature (°C) at time 0
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) at time 0
Early warning score at time 0
Blood tests
INRb at day0, or nearest within 7 days before
eGFRc (mL/min/1.73 m2) at day 0, or nearest within 7 days before
Serum albumin (g/L) at day0, or nearest within 7 days before
Bilirubin (total, micromol/L) at day0, or nearest within 7 days before
Neutrophil count (× 109/L) at day 0, or nearest within 7 days before
Interventions
Receiving intravenous fluids on day 0, at or before time 0
Receiving artificial ventilation on day 0, at or before time 0
Receiving vasopressor drugs on day 0, at or before time 0
Received systemic corticosteroids in 24 h before time 0
  1. a Speciality of consultant on day 0 was not included as a potential covariate in modelling as it was correlated with day 0 ward speciality, which was of more interest. bINR international normalised ratio ceGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate