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Table 4 Characteristics of Parent Survey Completers (n = 413) Described and Compared by Positive Deviance Status as Measured by the Standardized Parent Participation Profile

From: Quantifying parent engagement in the randomized Fuel for Fun impact study identified design considerations and BMI relationships

Baseline Psychosocial Factors Standardized Parent Participation Profilea,b
Total group PD (n = 105)c Non-PD (n = 308)
ecSI 2.0™ d (n = 397) 32.2± 8.1 33.2 ± 7.9 (n = 101) 31.8±8.1
Subscales:
 Eating Attitudese 12.9±3.5 (n = 406) 13.1±3.4 (n = 102) 12.8±3.6
 Food Acceptance f* 5.1±2.0 (n = 407) 5.5±2.1 (n = 101) 5.0±2.0
 Internal Regulationg 4.0±1.4 (n = 410) 4.0±1.5 (n = 102) 4.0±1.4
 Conceptual Skillsh 10.2±3.0 (n = 409) 10.6±2.7 (n = 102) 10.1±3.0
EC i (n = 397) 210 (53%) 58 (57%) 152 (51%)
BMI j (n = 407) 26.1±5.8 25.5±5.5 (n = 102) 26.3±6.0
 Underweight (n = 6) 6 (1%) 2 (2%) 4 (1%)
 Normal weight (n = 207) 207 (51%) 55 (54%) 152 (50%)
 Overweight (n = 117) 117 (29%) 27 (26%) 90 (30%)
 Obese (n = 77) 77 (19%) 18 (18%) 59 (19%)
Highest Education
 High School or less 25 (6%) 7 (7%) 18 (6%)
 Some College/Training 119 (29%) 26 (25%) 93 (30%)
 4-yr College Degree 145 (35%) 40 (38%) 105 (34%)
 Post graduate College 124 (30%) 29 (28%) 95 (31%)
Used ≥1 Assistance Program 120 (29%) 32 (30%) 88 (29%)
Child Feeding Stylek **
 Uninvolved 78 (19%) 12 (12%) 66 (22%)
 Indulgent 120 (30%) 41 (42%) 79 (26%)
 Authoritative 83 (21%) 17 (17%) 66 (22%)
 Authoritarian 120 (30%) 28 (29%) 92 (30%)
Physical Activity Levell
 Low 94 (23%) 22 (21%) 72 (23%)
 Moderate 119 (29%) 28 (27%) 91 (30%)
 High 200 (48%) 52 (50%) 148 (48%)
Modeling Scorem (n = 403) 15.2±4.2 15.7±3.5 (n = 102) 15.0±4.4(n = 301)
SE/OE Scoren (n = 405) 53.1±8.8 53.6±9.0(n = 100) 52.9±8.7(n = 305)
HEI scoreo (n = 77) 55.4±12.4 55.2±12.1(n = 54) 56.0±13.6(n = 23)
Stressp (n = 426) 6.7±2.1 6.7 ± 2.0 6.7±2.1 (n = 321)
  1. Table entries are mean (Standard Deviation) or frequencies (%). Percentages may not sum to 100% because of rounding. Sample sizes are as listed in the heading unless included in parentheses EC Eating Competent, SE/OE Self-efficacy/Outcome Expectancies toward fruits and vegetables, ecSI 2.0™ Satter Eating Competence Inventory 2.0,™ PD Positive Deviant
  2. a Calculated by dividing Parent Participation Profile (PPP) by number of activities offered
  3. b Column percentages are proportion of total sample or sample sizes specific to each psychosocial factor of Positive Deviant and non-Positive Deviant parents respectively
  4. c Positive deviant parent defined as participating in 75% or more of available activity types
  5. d Satter Eating Competence Inventory 2.0™ possible score 0–48; higher scores indicate more eating competence
  6. e Eating Attitudes subscale possible range 0–18
  7. f Food Acceptance subscale possible range 0–9
  8. g Internal Regulation subscale possible range 0–6
  9. h Contextual Skills subscale possible range 0–15
  10. i Eating Competence defined as ecSI 2.0™ ≥ 32
  11. j BMI calculated from self-reported weight and height
  12. kAssessed by Child Feeding Styles Questionnaire; Total n = 401; positive deviant n = 98
  13. l Measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire
  14. m Possible score 0–33; higher scores indicate more modeling
  15. n Possible score 12–60; higher scores indicate greater SE/OE
  16. o Healthy Eating Index, Calculated using 2010 Dietary Guidelines
  17. p Possible score 1 (no stress) to 10 (extreme stress)
  18. * Independent t-test comparing Positive Deviant status p = 0.024
  19. **Chi Square comparing Positive Deviant status p=0.015