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Table 3 Chi-squared analysis of the relationship between drivers’ behaviors during driving and one-year period prevalence of road traffic crashes among university students in Kuwait, December 2016 (N = 1465)

From: A proportional odds model of risk behaviors associated with recurrent road traffic crashes among young adults in Kuwait

Driver’s behavior’s during drivingb Distribution of number of road traffic crashesa P-value
None (n = 899, 61.4%) One (n = 338, 23.1% Twice (n = 160; 10.9%) Thrice or more (n = 68; 4.6%)
n (%)a n (%)a n (%)a n (%)a
Age (years) at first started driving (< 18/ ≥ 18)      0.219
  ≥ 18 707 (60.8) 276 (23.7) 129 (11.1) 51 (4.4)  
  < 18 175 (60.6) 62 (21.5) 31 (10.7) 21 (7.3)  
Ever speed over limit for the road (y/n)       < 0.001
 Yes 373 (54.9) 161 (23.7) 100 (14.7) 46 (6.8)  
 No 506 (65.9) 176 (22.9) 60 (7.8) 26 (3.4)  
Use phone when driving (y/n)      0.005
 Yes 461 (56.8) 200 (24.7) 103 (12.7) 47 (5.8)  
 No 417 (65.5) 138 (21.7) 57 (9.0) 25 (3.9)  
Regularly wear seatbelt while driving (y/n)       < 0.001
 Yes 606 (64.3) 200 (21.2) 103 (10.9) 34 (3.6)  
 No 275 (54.2) 138 (27.2) 57 (11.2) 37 (7.3)  
Eat/drink while driving (y/n)      0.003
 Yes 519 (57.4) 221 (24.4) 116 (12.8) 49 (5.4)  
 No 362 (66.4) 116 (21.3) 44 (8.1) 23 (4.2)  
Smoking while driving (y/n)      0.052
 Yes 80 (51.0) 47 (29.9) 19 (12.1) 11 (7.0)  
 No 800 (61.9) 291 (22.5) 141 (10.9) 61 (4.7)  
Habitually crossed a red light (y/n)       < 0.001
 Yes 273 (51.2) 139 (26.1) 77 (14.5) 44 (8.3)  
 No 605 (66.1) 199 (21.8) 83 (9.1) 28 (3.1)  
Drive on emergency lane (y/n)      0.005
 Yes 304 (56.3) 135 (25.0) 62 (11.5) 39 (7.2)  
 No 576 (63.3) 203 (22.3) 98 (10.8) 33 (3.6)  
Speeding tickets during the past 1-year       < 0.001
 None 422 (65.0) 151 (23.3) 55 (8.5) 21 (3.2)  
 One 210 (57.9) 85 (23.4) 41 (11.3) 27 (7.4)  
 Two 183 (62.2) 68 (23.1) 31 (10.5) 12 (4.1)  
 Three or more 65 (45.5) 34 (23.8) 33 (23.1) 11 (7.7)  
Parking tickets in the past 1-year       < 0.001**
 None 441 (84.6) 54 (10.4) 20 (3.8) 6 (1.2)  
 One 130 (30.4) 179 (41.9) 80 (18.7) 38 (8.9)  
 Two 77 (65.8) 67 (33.0) 43 (21.2) 16 (7.9)  
 Three or more 109 (42.6) 92 (35.9) 37 (14.5) 18 (7.0)  
Parked in the no parking zone      0.006**
 None 174 (68.5) 54 (21.3) 20 (7.9) 6 (2.4)  
 1–5 474 (61.5) 179 (23.2) 80 (10.4) 38 (4.9)  
 6–10 166 (56.8) 67 (23.0) 43 (14.7) 16 (5.5)  
 More than 10 65 (49.2) 38 (28.8) 17 (12.9) 12 (9.1)  
Average hours of sleep every night      0.582**
 5 or less 176 (62.2) 54 (19.1) 35 (12.4) 18 (6.3)  
 6–8 533 (60.5) 209 (23.7) 97 (11.0) 42 (4.8)  
 8–10 136 (61.0) 56 (25.1) 23 (10.3) 8 (3.6)  
 More than 10 37 (56.9) 18 (27.7) 5 (7.7) 5 (7.7)  
Being a patient with epilepsy
 No 723 (62.1) 267 (22.9) 127 (10.9) 48 (4.1) 0.015***
 Yes 3 (23.1) 5 (38.5) 2 (15.4) 3 (23.1)  
  1. ** p-value for with Chi-squared statistic for trend
  2. *** Goodman–Kruskal gamma test of independence
  3. aCategory totals may not add to total due to missing values
  4. bThe missingness for the variables list this table ranges from 0.0% to 0.8% except epilepsy which was 19.6% most like answer would have been no. (age (years) first started driving = 7 (0.5%); Ever speed over limit for the road = (0.8%); use phone while driving = 12 (0.8%); Regularly wear seatbelt while driving = 10 (0.7%); Ear/ drink while driving = 10 (0.7%); Smoking while driving = 10 (0.7%); Habitually crossed red light = 1 (0.8%); Drive in emergency line = 10 (0.7%); Number of speeding tickets during the past 1 year 11 (0.8%); Number of parking tickets during the past one year = 0 (0.0%; Number of times parked in no parking zone = 11 (0.8%); Hours of sleep every night = 8 (0.5%); suffer from epilepsy = 287 (19.6%), most likely to ‘no’ answer