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Fig. 1 | BMC Medical Research Methodology

Fig. 1

From: The impact of moderator by confounder interactions in the assessment of treatment effect modification: a simulation study

Fig. 1

Graphical representation of a moderator which influences the confounder-exposure and confounder-outcome relationships. The moderator, \({\varvec{M}}\), by definition influences the relationship between the exposure, \({\varvec{T}}\), and outcome, \({\varvec{Y}}\), but also may influence the relationship between a confounder, \({\varvec{X}}\), and the exposure and/or the relationship between a confounder and the outcome. The moderator may also be a confounder between the exposure and outcome (shown via a dotted line), but not necessarily

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