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Table 1 Results of the assessment of the need for a guideline for children with COVID-19

From: Methodology and experiences of rapid advice guideline development for children with COVID-19: responding to the COVID-19 outbreak quickly and efficiently

WHO criteria for the need of a RAG Explanation Is this criterion met? Reason
Whether the public health event is an emergency or dangerous situation 1). Emergencies may be classified as natural, technological, or conflict related and may be of sudden onset (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, chemical crises) or more gradual onset (e.g., deteriorating situations in armed conflict, progressive disease outbreaks, drought, or food insecurities)
2). Using the rapid risk assessment of acute public health events manual to assess ‘‘any outbreak or other rapidly evolving situation that may have negative consequences for human health and requires immediate assessment and action’’ [13].
Yes On January 26, the WHO raised the global risk of the epidemic to "high risk" for the first time, with 2014 cases confirmed in 11 countries in the Americas, Oceania, Asia and Europe [14]
Whether the public health event is novel 1). A new public health event (e.g., emerging infectious disease) or an event encountered previously but causing problems in a different context
2). If the contingency is not the first of its kind and relevant high-quality guideline already exists, it can be adopted directly or adapted to quickly address the health concern. (e.g., Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo again in 2019, but by this time high-quality Ebola guidelines have been published, so there is no need to develop rapid advice guidelines for Ebola [15, 16].)
Yes On January 26, nucleic acid testing of the virus by Chinese researchers had revealed that the disease was caused by a novel coronavirus, that it was an outbreak of a new public health threat, and that there were no high-quality guidelines for children with this condition published at this time [17, 18]
Duration of the public health event The purpose of the RAG is to provide urgently needed evidence-based recommendations that should be implemented within one to three months, and if an event is likely to last more than six months, then a standard guide may be the best approach Yes The global SARS outbreak lasted almost 8 months from the first case to the complete eradication, the MERS outbreak has lasted 5 years, and SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same coronavirus genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. COVID-19 epidemic can also be expected to last for some time, so it is feasible to develop rapid advice guidelines within 1 to 3 months of the outbreak [19]
The need to urgently address the problem of uncertainty In the event of a public health emergency, there is significant controversy among health care professionals about certain issues or aspects that need to be resolved in the short term. (e.g., the use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of COVID-19 disease faces considerable controversy. The WHO Expert Group on the Clinical Management of Novel Coronaviruses, J Kenneth Baillie et al. commented in the Lancet that clinical evidence does not support the use of glucocorticoids to treat lung injury caused by novel coronaviruses, and may even be harmful, while China's frontline antiviral experts suggest that glucocorticoids have some benefit [20, 21].) Yes After a systematic review of published guidelines, we found that most focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in adults, with little attention paid to special populations such as children. There is an urgent need for clinical guidance on antiviral treatment, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria and home management of children with mild or severe COVID-19 [22]
Whether it can be rapidly and widely implemented Before developing RAGs, it is important to consider the various factors involved in their implementation, such as the breadth and acceptability of the target population, their integration into national health policy systems, and their rapid implementation Yes SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and the entire population is susceptible. The total number of children in the world stands at 2 billion, and children, as a vulnerable group, are of great concern [23, 24]. In addition, countries threatened by the epidemic have elevated the prevention and control of COVID-19 to the highest national priority and have promulgated various health policies to prevent and control the disease [25], so that COVID-19 guidelines can be widely implemented