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Table 3 Overview of the 7 scenarios, including six control scenarios and the seventh scenario which gives the opportunity to test the added value of controlling for the common cause

From: Instrumental variable analysis to estimate treatment effects: a simulation study showing potential benefits of conditioning on hospital

under 7 different scenarios:
 1. Null scenario: no effect of treatment
 2. RCT scenario: treatment randomly assigned
 3. Confounder-adjusted
 4. Confounder-adjusted with instrument
 5. Confounder-adjusted and subject to selection bias
 6. Confounder-adjusted and subject to selection bias with instrument
 7. Confounder-adjusted and subject to selection bias with instrument and common cause of instrument and outcome
With scenario number 7 being what we believe to be closest to the truth.