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Table 2 Characteristics of included review papers

From: Spontaneously generated online patient experience data - how and why is it being used in health research: an umbrella scoping review

Ref Title Review Aims/Objectives Area Data Source Review type No Papers
Abbe 2016 [23] Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review Two specific objectives: (1) to collect and analyse applications from the studies reviewed to assess the benefits and limitations of using TM; and (2) to identify new opportunities for use of TM in psychiatry. Mental health Online posts, qual studies, EHRs, biomed literature Systematic 38
Abd Rahman 2020 [24] Application of Machine Learning Methods in Mental Health Detection: A Systematic Review The main purpose of this paper is to explore the adequacy, challenges, and limitations of a mental health problem detection based on OSNs data. The objective of this systematic literature review is to conduct a critical assessment analysis on detection of mental health problems using OSNs. We also investigated the appropriateness of this pre-mental health detection by identifying its data analysis method, comparison, challenges, and limitations. Mental Health Mostly Twitter or Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter) Systematic 22
Al-Garadi 2016 [25] Using online social networks to track a pandemic: A systematic review This study aims to investigate the adequacy and limitations of pandemic surveillances based on OSN data. Infectious disease Mostly Twitter Systematic 20
Allen 2016 [26] Long-Term Condition Self-Management Support in Online Communities: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Papers To understand the negotiation of long-term condition illness-work in patient online communities and how such work may assist the self-management of long-term conditions in daily life. Chronic Mostly disease specific / Gen health sites / FB Systematic 21
Barros 2020 [27] The Application of Internet-Based Sources for Public Health Surveillance (Infoveillance): Systematic Review aimed to assess research findings regarding the application of IBSs for public health surveillance (infodemiology or infoveillance). Public Health SM, search queries Systematic 162
Calvo 2017 [20] Natural language processing in mental health applications using non-clinical texts To highlight areas of research where NLP has been applied in the mental health literature and to help develop a common language that draws together the fields of mental health, human-computer interaction, and NLP. Mental health Mostly Twitter Scoping 23
CastiiloSanchez 2020 [28] Suicide Risk Assessment Using Machine Learning and Social Networks: A Scoping Review Aims to identify the machine learning techniques used to predict suicide risk based on information posted on social networks. Mental Health any but mostly Twitter Scoping 16
Charles-Smith 2015 [29] Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review 1. Q1. Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? 2. Q2. Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Infectious disease Mostly Twitter (81%) Systematic 33
Cheerkoot-Jalim 2020 [30] A systematic review of text mining approaches applied to various application areas in the biomedical domain To identify the different text mining approaches used in different application areas of the biomedical domain, the common tools used, and the challenges of biomedical text mining as compared to generic text mining algorithms. Any EHR, Biomed literature, SM Systematic 34
Convertino 2018 [31] The usefulness of listening social media for pharmacovigilance purposes: a systematic review To evaluate the usefulness and quality of signals from social media listening. ADR Varied Systematic 38
Demner-Fushman 2016 [32] Aspiring to Unintended Consequences of Natural Language Processing: A Review of Recent Developments in Clinical and Consumer-Generated Text Processing To review work over the past two years in Natural Language Processing (NLP) applied to clinical and consumer-generated texts Any Clinical & UG texts. General review NS
Dobrossy 2020 [33] “Clicks, likes, shares and comments” a systematic review of breast cancer screening discourse in social media we had two aims: first, to assess the volume, participants, and content of breast screening social media communication and second, to find out whether social media can be used by screening organisers as a channel of patient education. Breast Cancer any but mostly Twitter Systematic 17
Dol 2019 [34] Health Researchers’ Use of Social Media: Scoping Review To explore how social media is used by health researchers professionally, as reported in the literature Any Varied Scoping 414
Dreisbach 2019 [35] A systematic review of natural language processing and text mining of symptoms from electronic patient-authored text data To synthesize the literature on the use of natural language processing (NLP) and text mining as they apply to symptom extraction and processing in electronic patient-authored text (ePAT) Symptoms Varied Systematic 21
Drewniak 2020 [36] Risks and Benefits of Web-Based Patient Narratives: Systematic Review This review aimed to evaluate whether research-generated Web-based patient narratives have quantifiable risks or benefits for (potential) patients, relatives, or health care professionals Any Any SM Systematic 17
Edo-Osagie 2020 [37] A scoping review of the use of Twitter for public health research Aims to review and synthesize the literature on Twitter applications for public health, highlighting current research and products in practice. Any Twitter Scoping 92
Falisi 2017 [38] Social media for breast cancer survivors: a literature review To provide a systematic synthesis of the current literature in order to inform cancer health communication practice and cancer survivorship research. Breast cancer Online support groups Systematic 98
Filannino 2018 [39] Advancing the State of the Art in Clinical Natural Language Processing through Shared Tasks To review the latest scientific challenges organized in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) by highlighting the tasks, the most effective methodologies used, the data, and the sharing strategies. Any Twitter/ReachOut forum General review 17
Fung 2016 [40] Ebola virus disease and social media: A systematic review Ebola virus disease and social media, especially to identify the research questions and the methods used to collect and analyse social media Infectious disease Mostly Twitter & YouTube Systematic 12
Gianfredi 2018 [41] Harnessing Big Data for Communicable Tropical and Sub-Tropical Disorders: Implications from a Systematic Review of the Literature To systematically assess the feasibility of exploiting novel data streams (NDS) for surveillance purposes and/or their potential for capturing public reaction to epidemic outbreaks. Infectious disease Varied but mostly Twitter Systematic 47
Giuntini 2020 [42] A review on recognizing depression in social networks: challenges and opportunities investigates the state-of-the-art of how sentiment and emotion analysis approaches can identify depressive disorders in social networks. Mental Health Any: mostly Twitter Systematic 26
Gohil 2018 [15] Sentiment Analysis of Health Care Tweets: Review of the Methods Used To review the methods used to measure sentiment for Twitter-based health care studies. Any Twitter Systematic 12
Golder 2015 [43] Systematic review on the prevalence, frequency, and comparative value of adverse events data in social media To summarize prevalence, frequency, and comparative value of information on the adverse events of healthcare interventions from user comments and videos in social media. ADR Mostly discussion forums Systematic 51
Gonzalez-Hernandez 2017 [44] Capturing the Patient’s Perspective: a Review of Advances in Natural Language Processing of Health-Related Text To review the recently published literature discussing the application of NLP techniques for mining health-related information from EHRs and social media posts. To provide a scope of the trends and advances in capturing the patient’s perspective on health within the last three years. Any SM & EHRs General review 87
Gupta 2020 [45] Social media-based surveillance systems for healthcare using machine learning: A systematic review We review the recent work, trends, and machine learning (ML) text classification approaches used by surveillance systems seeking social media data in the healthcare domain. We also highlight the limitations and challenges followed by possible future directions that can be taken further in this domain. Any Twitter 64% Systematic 26
Hamad 2016 [46] Toward a Mixed-Methods Research Approach to Content Analysis in The Digital Age: The Combined Content-Analysis Model and its Applications to Health Care Twitter Feeds To identify studies on health care and social media that used Twitter feeds as a primary data source and CA as an analysis technique. ADR Twitter Narrative review 18
Ho 2016 [75] Data-driven Approach to Detect and Predict Adverse Drug Reactions Compares omics, social media and EHRs as sources of ADR knowledge ADR Any SM General review 22
Injadat 2016 [47] Data mining techniques in social media: A survey Techniques, areas, performance, comparison of techniques, strengths and weaknesses of data mining methods Any Any SM Survey 66
Karmegan 2020 [48] A Systematic Review of Techniques Employed for Determining Mental Health Using Social Media in Psychological Surveillance During Disasters Our review aims to analyse the possibility, effectiveness, and procedures of using social media data to understand the emotional and psychological impact of an unforeseen disaster on the community. Mental Health Any SM: mostly Twitter Systematic 18
Kim 2017 [49] Scaling Up Research on Drug Abuse and Addiction Through Social Media Big Data To determine how social media big data can be used to understand communication and behavioural patterns of problematic use of prescription drugs. Substance misuse Twitter Critical 8
Lafferty 2015 [50] Perspectives on social media in and as research: A synthetic review To summarize findings, opinions and discussion about the use of SoMe in research, including examples from psychiatry. Mental health Varied Systematic 56
Lardon 2015 [51] Adverse Drug Reaction Identification and Extraction in Social Media: A Scoping Review To explore the breadth of evidence about the use of social media as a new source of knowledge for pharmacovigilance. ADR Mainly online forums +Twitter/blogs Scoping 24
Lau 2019 [52] Artificial Intelligence in Health: New Opportunities, Challenges, and Practical Implications To summarise the state of the art during the year 2018 in consumer health informatics Any Any SM General review 14
Lopez-Castroman 2019 [53] Mining social networks to improve suicide prevention: A scoping review Narrative review of possible suicidal behaviours on social networks Mental health NS Scoping NS
Mavragani 2020 [54] Infodemiology and Infoveillance: Scoping Review The aim of this paper is to provide a scoping review of the state-of-the-art in infodemiology along with the background and history of the concept, to identify sources and health categories and topics, to elaborate on the validity of the employed methods, and to discuss the gaps identified in current research. Any Mostly Twitter Scoping 338
Neveol 2017 [55] Making Sense of Big Textual Data for Health Care: Findings from the Section on Clinical Natural Language Processing To identify the best clinical NLP papers of 2016 Any SM + EHRs General review 5
Neveol 2018 [21] Expanding the Diversity of Texts and Applications: Findings from the Section on Clinical Natural Language Processing of the International Medical Informatics Association Yearbook Summarize recent research / best papers for clinical NLP in 2017 Any Any SM General review 15
Patel 2015 [56] Social Media Use in Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review and Novel Taxonomy To evaluate clinical outcomes from applications of contemporary social media in chronic disease; to develop a conceptual taxonomy to categorize, summarize, and then analyse the current evidence base; and to suggest a framework for future studies on this topic Chronic Any SM Systematic 42
Pourebrahim 2020 [57] Adverse Drug Reaction Detection Using Data Mining Techniques: A Review Article The aim of this study is to study, review and challenge the methods of ADR diagnosis by data mining on social media, especially Twitter. ADR Any SM: mostly Twitter General 0
Qiao 2020 [58] A Systematic Review of Machine Learning Approaches for Mental Disorder Prediction on Social Media The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of SM studies in the mental disorder detection field. Mental Health Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, Tumblr, Instagram General 0
Ru & Yao 2019 [7] A Literature Review of Social Media-Based Data Mining for Health Outcomes Research To summarize key points of the area in data accessibility, textual data pre-processing methods, analysis methods, opportunities, and challenges. Any Any SM General review 19
Santos 2019 [59] Datamining and machine learning techniques applied to public health problems: A bibliometric analysis from 2009 to 2018 To: (i) analyse the number of papers published from 2009 to 2018 (10 years) due to the increasing number of publications and dissemination of ML in public health; (ii) identify the journals with the greatest number of papers; (iii) determine which techniques, programming languages and software tools are most widely used in the field of DM applied to public health; (iv) identify which countries and databases were targeted by these studies; (v) analyse which public health classes were tackled by these papers and (vi)identify which papers were most frequently cited in the literature. Public health Any SM Bibliometric 250
Sarker 2019 [60] Mining social media for prescription medication abuse monitoring: a review and proposal for a data-centric framework To present a methodological review of social media-based PM abuse or misuse monitoring studies, and to propose a potential generalizable, data-centric processing pipeline for the curation of data from this resource. Substance misuse Twitter / Facebook / Reddit General review 39
Sharma 2016 [61] Identifying Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage Information from Internet Resources. A Systematic Review Identify and highlight research issues and methods used in studying Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) information needs, access, and exchange over the Internet. CAM Any SM Systematic 120
Sharma 2020 [62] Sentiment analysis of social media posts on pharmacotherapy: A Scoping Review The aim of this scoping review was to describe the available evidence as it pertains to SA of Social Media specifically about pharmacotherapy. Themes will be generated about the published uses of SA and the real-world implications of the knowledge generated. Any Any SM: mostly Twitter Scoping 10
Sinnenberg 2017 [63] Twitter as a Tool for Health Research: A Systematic Review To systematically review the use of Twitter in health research, define a taxonomy to describe Twitter use, and characterize the current state of Twitter in health research. Health research Twitter Systematic 137
Skaik 2020 [64] Using Social Media for Mental Health Surveillance: A Review This systematic review aims to analyse the literature on using social media posts to predict mental disorders using ML and NLP methods that could be useful for mental health surveillance and presents the cutting-edge techniques in predictive analysis of suicide ideation and depression at the population-level. It also points at the gaps that need further research from the perspective of the data, the models, and evaluation procedures. Mental Health Any SM General 110
Staccini 2017 [65] Secondary Use of Recorded or Self-expressed Personal Data: Consumer Health Informatics and Education in the Era of Social Media and Health Apps To summarize the state of the art during the year 2016 in the areas related to consumer health informatics and education with a special emphasis in secondary use of patient data. Any Any SM Systematic 5
Su 2020 [66] Deep learning in mental health outcome research: a scoping review The goal of this study is to review existing research on applications of DL algorithms in mental health outcome research. Mental Health SM, EHR, etc Scoping 57
Tricco 2018 [67] Utility of social media and crowd-intelligence data for pharmacovigilance: a scoping review Review the literature regarding using SM conversations for ADR detection ADR Any SM Scoping 70
Vilar 2018 [68] Detection of drug-drug interactions through data mining studies using clinical sources, scientific literature, and social media To review datamining as a method of detecting drug-drug interactions ADR SM/ EHRs. FAERS, WHO General review NS
Wilson 2015 [69] Using blogs as a qualitative health research tool: A scoping review To identify how blogs are being used in health research to date and whether blogging has potential as a useful qualitative tool for data collection. Our purpose was to summarize the extent, range, and nature of research activity using blogs. Any blogs Scoping 44
Wong 2018 [70] Natural Language Processing and Its Implications for the Future of Medication Safety: A Narrative Review of Recent Advances and Challenges To review methods of identifying adverse events from free text ADR SM + EHRs General review 12
Wongkoblap 2017 [71] Researching Mental Health Disorders in the Era of Social Media: Systematic Review To explore the scope and limits of cutting-edge techniques that researchers are using for predictive analytics in mental health and to review associated issues, such as ethical concerns, in this area of research. Mental health Various SM Systematic 48
Yin 2019 [16] A systematic literature review of machine learning in online personal health data To systematically review the effectiveness of applying machine learning (ML) methodologies to UGC for personal health investigations. Any Any SM: mostly Twitter Systematic 103
Zhang 2018 [72] Using Twitter for Data Collection with Health-Care Consumers: A Scoping Review To provide an overview of previously published literature describing Twitter as a data collection method with health-care consumers and provide researchers with considerations when potentially using this data collection approach. Any Twitter Scoping 17
Zhang 2020 [73] When Public Health Research Meets Social Media: Knowledge Mapping From 2000 to 2018 Aims to examine research themes, the role of social media, and research methods in social media–based public health research published from 2000 to 2018 Any Any SM Review 3419
Zunic 2020 [74] Sentiment Analysis in Health and Well-Being: Systematic Review This study aimed to establish the state of the art in SA related to health and well-being by conducting a systematic review of the recent literature. To capture the perspective of those individuals whose health and well-being are affected, we focused specifically on spontaneously generated content and not necessarily that of health care professionals. Any Various SM Systematic 86