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Data analysis, statistics and modelling

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how statistical techniques can impact study results along with manuscripts that propose new statistical methods that have an application in medical research.

Page 1 of 13

  1. Usability testing of medical devices are mandatory for market access. The testings’ goal is to identify usability problems that could cause harm to the user or limit the device’s effectiveness. In practice, hu...

    Authors: Vincent Vandewalle, Alexandre Caron, Coralie Delettrez, Renaud Périchon, Sylvia Pelayo, Alain Duhamel and Benoit Dervaux

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:234

    Content type: Technical advance

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  2. Contact tracing data of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is used to estimate basic epidemiological parameters. Contact tracing data could also be potentially used for assessin...

    Authors: Karikalan Nagarajan, Malaisamy Muniyandi, Bharathidasan Palani and Senthil Sellappan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:233

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Psychiatric disorders may occur as a single episode or be persistent and relapsing, sometimes leading to suicidal behaviours. The exact causes of psychiatric disorders are hard to determine but easy access to ...

    Authors: Sharmin Sharker, Lloyd Balbuena, Gene Marcoux and Cindy Xin Feng

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:232

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Defining incident cases has always been a challenging issue for researchers working with routine data. Lookback periods should enable researchers to identify and exclude recurrent cases and increase the accura...

    Authors: Jelena Epping, Siegfried Geyer and Juliane Tetzlaff

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:229

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become a major endpoint to assess the clinical benefit of new therapeutic strategies in oncology clinical trials. Typically, HRQoL outcomes are analyzed using linear ...

    Authors: B. Cuer, C. Mollevi, A. Anota, E. Charton, B. Juzyna, T. Conroy and C. Touraine

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:223

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Event-related potentials (ERP) data are widely used in brain studies that measure brain responses to specific stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG) with multiple electrodes. Previous ERP data analyses haven...

    Authors: Ye Lin, Jianhui Zhou, Swapna Kumar, Wanze Xie, Sarah K. G. Jensen, Rashidul Haque, Charles A. Nelson, William A. Petri Jr and Jennie Z. Ma

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:221

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The data from immuno-oncology (IO) therapy trials often show delayed effects, cure rate, crossing hazards, or some mixture of these phenomena. Thus, the proportional hazards (PH) assumption is often violated s...

    Authors: Jason J. Z. Liao, G. Frank Liu and Wen-Chi Wu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:218

    Content type: Technical advance

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  8. Monitoring and reporting of drug safety during a clinical trial is essential to its success. More recent attention to drug safety has encouraged statistical methods development for monitoring and detecting pot...

    Authors: Junhao Liu, Jo Wick, Renee’ H. Martin, Caitlyn Meinzer, Dooti Roy and Byron Gajewski

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:211

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:227

  9. As the whole world is experiencing the cascading effect of a new pandemic, almost every aspect of modern life has been disrupted. Because of health emergencies during this period, widespread fear has resulted ...

    Authors: Atanu Bhattacharjee, Gajendra K. Vishwakarma, Souvik Banerjee and Sharvari Shukla

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:209

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) presents a variety of challenges for ongoing clinical trials, including an inevitably higher rate of missing outcome data, with new and non-standard reasons for missingness....

    Authors: Suzie Cro, Tim P. Morris, Brennan C. Kahan, Victoria R. Cornelius and James R. Carpenter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:208

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Three-level data arising from repeated measures on individuals who are clustered within larger units are common in health research studies. Missing data are prominent in such longitudinal studies and multiple ...

    Authors: Rushani Wijesuriya, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, John B. Carlin and Katherine J. Lee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:207

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The clinical progress of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 is often associated with severe pneumonia which may require intensive care, invasive ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). T...

    Authors: Derek Hazard, Klaus Kaier, Maja von Cube, Marlon Grodd, Lars Bugiera, Jerome Lambert and Martin Wolkewitz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:206

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In the presence of dependent censoring even after stratification of baseline covariates, the Kaplan–Meier estimator provides an inconsistent estimate of risk. To account for dependent censoring, time-varying c...

    Authors: Takuya Kawahara, Tomohiro Shinozaki and Yutaka Matsuyama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:204

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Missing data are common in statistical analyses, and imputation methods based on random forests (RF) are becoming popular for handling missing data especially in biomedical research. Unlike standard imputation...

    Authors: Shangzhi Hong and Henry S. Lynn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:199

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evidence-based practice. However, RCTs can have limitations. For example, translation of findings into practice can be limited by design features, ...

    Authors: Agnieszka Lemanska, Rachel C. Byford, Clare Cruickshank, David P. Dearnaley, Filipa Ferreira, Clare Griffin, Emma Hall, William Hinton, Simon de Lusignan, Julian Sherlock and Sara Faithfull

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:198

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Under competing risks, the commonly used sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR) is not easy to interpret clinically and is valid only under the proportional sub-distribution hazard (SDH) assumption. This paper intro...

    Authors: Jingjing Lyu, Yawen Hou and Zheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:197

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases divided by population size is used as a coarse measurement for the burden of disease in a population. However, this fraction depends heavily on the sampling intensity and...

    Authors: Ola Brynildsrud

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:196

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Controlling unobserved confounding still remains a great challenge in observational studies, and a series of strict assumptions of the existing methods usually may be violated in practice. Therefore, it is urg...

    Authors: Lu Liu, Lei Hou, Yuanyuan Yu, Xinhui Liu, Xiaoru Sun, Fan Yang, Qing Wang, Ming Jing, Yeping Xu, Hongkai Li and Fuzhong Xue

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:195

    Content type: Technical advance

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  19. Two-dimensional personalized medicine (2-PM) models are tools for measuring individual benefits of medical treatments for chronic diseases which have potential applications in personalized medicine. These mode...

    Authors: Zhiwen Wang and Francisco J. Diaz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:193

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Vaccine clinical studies typically provide time-resolved data on adaptive response read-outs in response to the administration of that particular vaccine to a cohort of individuals. However, modeling such data...

    Authors: Dicle Hasdemir, Robert A. van den Berg, Antoine van Kampen and Age K. Smilde

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:191

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In pairwise meta-analysis, the contribution of each study to the pooled estimate is given by its weight, which is based on the inverse variance of the estimate from that study. For network meta-analysis (NMA),...

    Authors: Gerta Rücker, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Theodoros Papakonstantinou, Georgia Salanti, Richard D. Riley and Guido Schwarzer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:190

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Network meta-analysis synthesises data from a number of clinical trials in order to assess the comparative efficacy of multiple healthcare interventions in similar patient populations. In situations where clin...

    Authors: Rhiannon K. Owen, Sylwia Bujkiewicz, Douglas G. Tincello and Keith R. Abrams

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:184

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Given the high prevalence of neck pain, the neck disability index (NDI) has been used to evaluate patient status and treatment outcomes. Modified versions were proposed as solutions to measurement deficits in ...

    Authors: Ze Lu, Joy C. MacDermid and Goris Nazari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:180

    Content type: Research article

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  24. In epidemiology, causal inference and prediction modeling methodologies have been historically distinct. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are used to model a priori causal assumptions and inform variable selecti...

    Authors: Marco Piccininni, Stefan Konigorski, Jessica L. Rohmann and Tobias Kurth

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:179

    Content type: Technical advance

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  25. Prognostic research has many important purposes, including (i) describing the natural history and clinical course of health conditions, (ii) investigating variables associated with health outcomes of interest,...

    Authors: Peter Kent, Carol Cancelliere, Eleanor Boyle, J. David Cassidy and Alice Kongsted

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:172

    Content type: Debate

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  26. Machine learning approaches have become increasingly popular modeling techniques, relying on data-driven heuristics to arrive at its solutions. Recent comparisons between these algorithms and traditional stati...

    Authors: Joshua J. Levy and A. James O’Malley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:171

    Content type: Technical advance

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  27. When data are collected subject to a detection limit, observations below the detection limit may be considered censored. In addition, the domain of such observations may be restricted; for example, values may ...

    Authors: Justin R. Williams, Hyung-Woo Kim and Catherine M. Crespi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:170

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Causal effect estimation with observational data is subject to bias due to confounding, which is often controlled for using propensity scores. One unresolved issue in propensity score estimation is how to hand...

    Authors: Donna L. Coffman, Jiangxiu Zhou and Xizhen Cai

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:168

    Content type: Research article

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  29. In medical research and practice, the p-value is arguably the most often used statistic and yet it is widely misconstrued as the probability of the type I error, which comes with serious consequences. This misund...

    Authors: Jian Gao

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:167

    Content type: Commentary

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  30. In a cross-sectional stepped-wedge trial with unequal cluster sizes, attained power in the trial depends on the realized allocation of the clusters. This attained power may differ from the expected power calcu...

    Authors: Yongdong Ouyang, Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, Paul Gustafson, Thalia S. Field and Hubert Wong

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:166

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Individual clinical trials and cohort studies are a useful source of data, often under-utilised once a study has ended. Pooling data from multiple sources could increase sample sizes and allow for further inve...

    Authors: Helen Le Sueur, Ian N. Bruce and Nophar Geifman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:164

    Content type: Debate

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  32. Studies of agreement examine the distance between readings made by different devices or observers measuring the same quantity. If the values generated by each device are close together most of the time then we...

    Authors: Richard A. Parker, Charles Scott, Vanda Inácio and Nathaniel T. Stevens

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:154

    Content type: Research article

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  33. In meta-analyses of a binary outcome, double zero events in some studies cause a critical methodology problem. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) has been proposed as a valid statistical tool for poolin...

    Authors: Ke Ju, Lifeng Lin, Haitao Chu, Liang-Liang Cheng and Chang Xu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:152

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Bayesian adaptive methods are increasingly being used to design clinical trials and offer several advantages over traditional approaches. Decisions at analysis points are usually based on the posterior distrib...

    Authors: Elizabeth G. Ryan, Kristian Brock, Simon Gates and Daniel Slade

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:150

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Stratification analyses have been widely utilized in molecular association meta-analyses to estimate the interaction between genetic and environmental factors or to control for the confounding variables linked...

    Authors: Shuhuang Lin, Yukun Ma and Zunnan Huang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:147

    Content type: Technical advance

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  36. Despite widespread use, the accuracy of the diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection is poorly understood. The aim of our work was to better quantify misclassification errors in identification of true cases of...

    Authors: Igor Burstyn, Neal D. Goldstein and Paul Gustafson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:146

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The change in two measurements of a continuous outcome can be modelled directly with a linear regression model, or indirectly with a random effects model (REM) of the individual measurements. These methods are...

    Authors: Yilin Ning, Nathalie C. Støer, Peh Joo Ho, Shih Ling Kao, Kee Yuan Ngiam, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, Soo Chin Lee, E-Shyong Tai, Mikael Hartman, Marie Reilly and Chuen Seng Tan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:145

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Person-environment fit, which examines the individual’s perceptions of if, and in what way, he or she is compatible with aspects of the work context, offers a promising conceptual model for understanding emplo...

    Authors: J. Herkes, L. A. Ellis, K. Churruca and J. Braithwaite

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:144

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Although null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the agreed gold standard in medical decision making and the most widespread inferential framework used in medical research, it has several drawbacks. Bay...

    Authors: Riko Kelter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:142

    Content type: Software

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  40. There is a growing trend in using the “statistically significant” term in the scientific literature. However, harsh criticism of this concept motivated the recommendation to withdraw its use of scientific publ...

    Authors: Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano, Fernando Morelli Calixto and José Mário Nunes da Silva

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:140

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Continuous reference intervals (RIs) allow for more precise consideration of the dynamic changes of physiological development, which can provide new strategies for the presentation of laboratory test results. ...

    Authors: Kun Li, Lixin Hu, Yaguang Peng, Ruohua Yan, Qiliang Li, Xiaoxia Peng, Wenqi Song and Xin Ni

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:136

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Observational longitudinal data often feature irregular, informative visit times. We propose descriptive measures to quantify the extent of irregularity to select an appropriate analytic outcome approach.

    Authors: Armend Lokku, Lily S. Lim, Catherine S. Birken and Eleanor M. Pullenayegum

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:135

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Elderly population’s health is a major concern for most industrial nations. National health surveys provide a measure of the state of elderly health. One such survey is the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevi...

    Authors: Elsa Vazquez-Arreola, Dan Xue and Jeffrey R. Wilson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:128

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Effective health care requires services that are responsive to local needs and contexts. Achieving this in indigenous settings implies communication between traditional and conventional medicine perspectives. ...

    Authors: Ivan Sarmiento, Sergio Paredes-Solís, David Loutfi, Anna Dion, Anne Cockcroft and Neil Andersson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:125

    Content type: Research article

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