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Data analysis, statistics and modelling

Section edited by Chiu-Hsieh (Paul) Hsu

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how statistical techniques can impact study results along with manuscripts that propose new statistical methods that have an application in medical research.

Page 1 of 9

  1. Content type: Software

    Recommended statistical methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies require relatively complex bivariate statistical models which can be a barrier for non-statisticians. A further barrier exi...

    Authors: Suzanne C. Freeman, Clareece R. Kerby, Amit Patel, Nicola J. Cooper, Terry Quinn and Alex J. Sutton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:81

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  2. Content type: Software

    In medical research, explanatory continuous variables are frequently transformed or converted into categorical variables. If the coding is unknown, many tests can be used to identify the “optimal” transformati...

    Authors: Benoit Liquet and Jérémie Riou

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:79

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  3. Content type: Research article

    An important part of the systematic review methodology is appraisal of the risk of bias in included studies. Cochrane systematic reviews are considered golden standard regarding systematic review methodology, ...

    Authors: Andrija Babic, Ruzica Tokalic, João Amílcar Silva Cunha, Ivana Novak, Jelena Suto, Marin Vidak, Ivana Miosic, Ivana Vuka, Tina Poklepovic Pericic and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:76

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  4. Content type: Technical advance

    In clinical trials, study designs may focus on assessment of superiority, equivalence, or non-inferiority, of a new medicine or treatment as compared to a control. Typically, evidence in each of these paradigm...

    Authors: Don van Ravenzwaaij, Rei Monden, Jorge N. Tendeiro and John P. A. Ioannidis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:71

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Chronic respiratory symptoms involving bronchitis, cough and phlegm in children are underappreciated but pose a significant public health burden. Efforts for prevention and management could be supported by an ...

    Authors: Huiyu Deng, Robert Urman, Frank D. Gilliland and Sandrah P. Eckel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:70

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Treatment switching is common in randomised trials of oncology treatments, with control group patients switching onto the experimental treatment during follow-up. This distorts an intention-to-treat comparison...

    Authors: N. R. Latimer, K. R. Abrams and U. Siebert

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:69

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Crowding in the emergency department (ED) is associated with increased mortality, increased treatment cost, and reduced quality of care. Crowding arises when demand exceed resources in the ED and a first sign ...

    Authors: Andreas Halgreen Eiset, Hans Kirkegaard and Mogens Erlandsen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:68

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Following visible successes on a wide range of predictive tasks, machine learning techniques are attracting substantial interest from medical researchers and clinicians. We address the need for capacity develo...

    Authors: Jenni A. M. Sidey-Gibbons and Chris J. Sidey-Gibbons

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:64

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The Scaling Integrated Care in Context (SCIROCCO) tool has been developed to facilitate knowledge transfer and learning about the implementation and scaling-up of integrated care in European regions. To adequa...

    Authors: Liset Grooten, Hubertus Johannes Maria Vrijhoef, Stefano Calciolari, Laura Guadalupe González Ortiz, Marcela Janečková, Mirella M. N. Minkman and Dirk Devroey

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:63

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Meta-analysis is a useful tool for combining evidence from multiple studies to estimate a pooled treatment effect. An extension of meta-analysis, network meta-analysis, is becoming more commonly used as a way ...

    Authors: Martin Law, Navid Alam, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Yi Yu and Dan Jackson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:61

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  11. Content type: Research article

    An a priori design is essential to reduce the risk of bias in systematic reviews (SRs). To this end, authors can register their SR with PROSPERO, and/or publish a SR protocol in an academic journal. The latter...

    Authors: Tanja Rombey, Katharina Allers, Tim Mathes, Falk Hoffmann and Dawid Pieper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:57

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  12. Content type: Technical advance

    Family health history (FHH) inherently involves collecting proxy reports of health statuses of related family members. Traditionally, such information has been collected from a single informant. More recently,...

    Authors: Jielu Lin, Melanie F. Myers, Laura M. Koehly and Christopher Steven Marcum

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:56

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Choosing the most performing method in terms of outcome prediction or variables selection is a recurring problem in prognosis studies, leading to many publications on methods comparison. But some aspects have ...

    Authors: Simon Bussy, Raphaël Veil, Vincent Looten, Anita Burgun, Stéphane Gaïffas, Agathe Guilloux, Brigitte Ranque and Anne-Sophie Jannot

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:50

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In clinical trials and survival analysis, participants may be excluded from the study due to withdrawal, which is often referred to as lost-to-follow-up (LTF). It is natural to argue that a disease would be ce...

    Authors: Jinheum Kim, Jayoun Kim and Seong W. Kim

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:49

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The use of correlates of protection (CoPs) in vaccination trials offers significant advantages as useful clinical endpoint substitutes. Vaccines with very high vaccine efficacy (VE) are documented in the liter...

    Authors: Andrea Callegaro and Fabian Tibaldi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:47

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  16. Content type: Review

    With progress on both the theoretical and the computational fronts the use of spline modelling has become an established tool in statistical regression analysis. An important issue in spline modelling is the a...

    Authors: Aris Perperoglou, Willi Sauerbrei, Michal Abrahamowicz and Matthias Schmid

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:46

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The use of guidelines has shown to improve clinical practice process and structure of health care, but health care providers don’t always use and keep up-to-date with the new clinical practice guidelines. Nurs...

    Authors: Wen Yan, Qian Chen, Xuemei Zhang, Marko Elovainio and Yan Huang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:40

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  18. Content type: Technical advance

    Patient-reported outcome measures developed using Classical Test Theory are commonly comprised of ordinal level items on a Likert response scale are problematic as they do not permit the results to be compared...

    Authors: Michael Robinson, Andrew M. Johnson, David M. Walton and Joy C. MacDermid

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:36

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Mixed effects models have been widely applied in clinical trials that involve longitudinal repeated measurements, which possibly contain missing outcome data. In meta-analysis of individual participant data (I...

    Authors: Hisashi Noma, Kazushi Maruo, Masahiko Gosho, Stephen Z. Levine, Yair Goldberg, Stefan Leucht and Toshi A. Furukawa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:33

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  20. Content type: Research article

    In some clinical situations, patients experience repeated events of the same type. Among these, cancer recurrences can result in terminal events such as death. Therefore, here we dynamically predicted the risk...

    Authors: Isao Yokota and Yutaka Matsuyama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:31

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Recent advances in sensor technologies have promoted the use of consumer-based accelerometers such as Fitbit Flex in epidemiological and clinical research; however, the validity of the Fitbit Flex in measuring...

    Authors: Nicklaus Redenius, Youngwon Kim and Wonwoo Byun

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:29

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  22. Content type: Research article

    It is common in applied epidemiological and clinical research to convert continuous variables into categorical variables by grouping values into categories. Such categorized variables are then often used as ex...

    Authors: Magne Thoresen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:28

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  23. Content type: Research article

    In a qualitative evidence synthesis, too much data due to a large number of studies can undermine our ability to perform a thorough analysis. Purposive sampling of primary studies for inclusion in the synthesi...

    Authors: Heather Ames, Claire Glenton and Simon Lewin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:26

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Within cancer care, dynamic evaluations of the loss in expectation of life provides useful information to patients as well as physicians. The loss of lifetime function yields the conditional loss in expectatio...

    Authors: Lasse H. Jakobsen, Therese M.-L. Andersson, Jorne L. Biccler, Tarec C. El-Galaly and Martin Bøgsted

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:23

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Health economic models are critical tools to inform reimbursement agencies on health care interventions. Many clinical trials report outcomes using the frequency of an event over a set period of time, for exam...

    Authors: Gian Luca Di Tanna, Joshua K. Porter, Richard B. Lipton, Alan Brennan, Stephen Palmer, Anthony J. Hatswell, Sandhya Sapra and Guillermo Villa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:20

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Logistic regression is often used for mediation analysis with a dichotomous outcome. However, previous studies showed that the indirect effect and proportion mediated are often affected by a change of scales i...

    Authors: Judith J. M. Rijnhart, Jos W. R. Twisk, Iris Eekhout and Martijn W. Heymans

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:19

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP), bispectral index (BIS), and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) represent valuable, yet dynamic intraoperative monitoring variables. They provide information related to poor outc...

    Authors: Michael P. Schnetz, Harry S. Hochheiser, David J. Danks, Douglas P. Landsittel, Keith M. Vogt, James W. Ibinson, Steven L. Whitehurst, Sean P. McDermott, Melissa Giraldo Duque and Ata M. Kaynar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:17

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Longitudinal categorical variables are sometimes restricted in terms of how individuals transition between categories over time. For example, with a time-dependent measure of smoking categorised as never-smoke...

    Authors: Anurika Priyanjali De Silva, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Alysha Madhu De Livera, Katherine Jane Lee and Julie Anne Simpson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:14

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  29. Content type: Research article

    A key element in the interaction between clinicians and patients with cancer is reassurance giving. Learning about the stochastic nature of reassurances as well as making inferential statements about the influ...

    Authors: Valentin Popov, Alesha Ellis-Robinson and Gerald Humphris

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:11

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The benefit of a given treatment can be evaluated via a randomized clinical trial design. However, protocol deviations may severely compromise treatment effect since such deviations often lead to missing value...

    Authors: Abdul-Karim Iddrisu and Freedom Gumedze

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:10

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  31. Content type: Technical advance

    Observational burden of illness studies are used in pharmacoepidemiology to address a variety of objectives, including contextualizing the current treatment setting, identifying important treatment gaps, and p...

    Authors: Karissa M. Johnston, Pardis Lakzadeh, Bonnie M. K. Donato and Shelagh M. Szabo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:9

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Many epidemiological studies test trends when investigating the association between a risk factor and a disease outcome. Continuous exposures are commonly discretized when the outcome is nonlinearly related to...

    Authors: Naomi C. Brownstein and Jianwen Cai

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:2

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Mucosal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides offer protection against acquisition and carriage of encapsulated bacteria like Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. Measurements of salivary antibodies as repla...

    Authors: Mariëtte B. van Ravenhorst, Fiona R. M. van der Klis, Debbie M. van Rooijen, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders and Guy A. M. Berbers

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:1

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The use of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk estimation scores in primary prevention has long been established. However, their performance still remains a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to explor...

    Authors: Alexandros C. Dimopoulos, Mara Nikolaidou, Francisco Félix Caballero, Worrawat Engchuan, Albert Sanchez-Niubo, Holger Arndt, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, Ekavi N. Georgousopoulou, Christos Pitsavos and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:179

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  35. Content type: Research article

    In order to accurately measure and monitor levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults, cost efficient and valid instruments are required. To date, the ...

    Authors: Claire Cleland, Sara Ferguson, Geraint Ellis and Ruth F. Hunter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:176

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Observational studies of medical interventions or risk factors are potentially biased by unmeasured confounding. In this paper we propose a Bayesian approach by defining an informative prior for the confounder...

    Authors: Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Inbal Shofty, Milica Miočević, Maarten van Smeden and Irene Klugkist

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:174

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Missing data are common in tobacco studies. It is well known that from the observed data alone, it is impossible to distinguish between missing mechanisms such as missing at random (MAR) and missing not at ran...

    Authors: Yiwen Zhang, Xianghua Luo, Chap T. Le, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia and Janet L. Thomas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:170

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cohorts often lack long-term survival data, and are summarized instead by initial treatment outcomes. When using Cox proportional hazards models to analyze these cohor...

    Authors: Meredith B. Brooks, Salmaan Keshavjee, Irina Gelmanova, Nataliya A. Zemlyanaya, Carole D. Mitnick and Justin Manjourides

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:166

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Studies based on high-quality linked data in developed countries show that even minor linkage errors, which occur when records of two different individuals are erroneously linked or when records belonging to t...

    Authors: Christopher T. Rentsch, Katie Harron, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd, Georges Reniers and Basia Zaba

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:165

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  40. Content type: Research article

    The SCL-90 and the SCL-90-R are the most applied measures regarding psychological distress. To reduce and prevent an overload to of the individuals, the Brief Symptom Inventory with 18 items (BSI-18) was devel...

    Authors: Katja Petrowski, Bjarne Schmalbach, Melanie Jagla, Gabriele Helga Franke and Elmar Brähler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:164

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Joint modeling is appropriate when one wants to predict the time to an event with covariates that are measured longitudinally and are related to the event. An underlying random effects structure links the surv...

    Authors: Jeffrey D. Long and James A. Mills

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:138

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  42. Content type: Research article

    In the presence of an intermediate clinical event, the analysis of time-to-event survival data by conventional approaches, such as the log-rank test, can result in biased results due to the length-biased chara...

    Authors: Sohee Kim, Jinheum Kim and Chung Mo Nam

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:98

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) are recommended for the assessment of the reliability of measurement scales. However, the ICC is subject to a variety of statistical assumptions such as normality and ...

    Authors: Carly A. Bobak, Paul J. Barr and A. James O’Malley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:93

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  44. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to describe the level of agreement of three commonly used delirium instruments: the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), and Confusion Assess...

    Authors: Alden L. Gross, Doug Tommet, Madeline D’Aquila, Eva Schmitt, Edward R. Marcantonio, Benjamin Helfand, Sharon K. Inouye and Richard N. Jones

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:92

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Informative attrition occurs when the reason participants drop out from a study is associated with the study outcome. Analysing data with informative attrition can bias longitudinal study inferences. Approache...

    Authors: Catherine A. Welch, Séverine Sabia, Eric Brunner, Mika Kivimäki and Martin J. Shipley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:89

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Missing data can introduce bias in the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), but are typically unavoidable in pragmatic clinical research, especially when patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) ar...

    Authors: Ines Rombach, Alastair M. Gray, Crispin Jenkinson, David W. Murray and Oliver Rivero-Arias

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:87

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:107

  47. Content type: Research article

    In contrast to aetiological associations, there is little empirical evidence for generalising health service use associations from cohort studies. We compared the health service use of cohort study participant...

    Authors: Nicola Creighton, Stuart Purdie, Matthew Soeberg, Richard Walton, Deborah Baker and Jane Young

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:84

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Random effects modelling is routinely used in clustered data, but for prediction models, random effects are commonly substituted with the mean zero after model development. In this study, we proposed a novel a...

    Authors: Haifang Ni, Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Mirjam Nielen and Irene Klugkist

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:83

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