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Data analysis, statistics and modelling

Section edited by Chiu-Hsieh (Paul) Hsu

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how statistical techniques can impact study results along with manuscripts that propose new statistical methods that have an application in medical research.

Page 1 of 10

  1. Content type: Research article

    Multiple primary outcomes may be specified in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). When analysing multiple outcomes it’s important to control the family wise error rate (FWER). A popular approach to do this is...

    Authors: Victoria Vickerstaff, Rumana Z. Omar and Gareth Ambler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:129

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  2. Content type: Debate

    Use of big data is becoming increasingly popular in medical research. Since big data-based projects differ notably from classical research studies, both in terms of scope and quality, a debate is apt as to whe...

    Authors: Amke Caliebe, Friedhelm Leverkus, Gerd Antes and Michael Krawczak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:125

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Cluster randomised trials with unequal sized clusters often have lower precision than with clusters of equal size. To allow for this, sample sizes are inflated by a modified version of the design effect for cl...

    Authors: James Thomas Martin, Karla Hemming and Alan Girling

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:123

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Accurate measurement of health literacy is essential to improve accessibility and effectiveness of health care and prevention. One measure frequently applied in international research is the Short Assessment o...

    Authors: A. J. Woudstra, C. S. Meppelink, H. Pander Maat, J. Oosterhaven, M. P. Fransen and A. L. Dima

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:122

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Clinical prediction models are not routinely validated. To facilitate validation procedures, the online Evidencio platform (https://​www.​evidencio.​com) ...

    Authors: Cornelia D. van Steenbeek, Marissa C. van Maaren, Sabine Siesling, Annemieke Witteveen, Xander A. A. M. Verbeek and Hendrik Koffijberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:117

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Comorbidity measures, such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Elixhauser Method (EM), are frequently used for risk-adjustment by healthcare researchers. This study sought to create CCI and EM lists of...

    Authors: David Metcalfe, James Masters, Antonella Delmestri, Andrew Judge, Daniel Perry, Cheryl Zogg, Belinda Gabbe and Matthew Costa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:115

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Length of stay evaluations are very common to determine the burden of nosocomial infections. However, there exist fundamentally different methods to quantify the prolonged length of stay associated with nosoco...

    Authors: Martin Wolkewitz, Martin Schumacher, Gerta Rücker, Stephan Harbarth and Jan Beyersmann

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:111

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  8. Content type: Research article

    This study compares an algorithm to detect acute gastroenteritis (AG) episodes from drug dispensing data to the validated data reported in a primary care surveillance system in France.

    Authors: Ana-Maria Vilcu, Thierry Blanchon, Laure Sabatte, Cécile Souty, Milka Maravic, Thomas Hanslik and Olivier Steichen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:110

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The likelihood ratio function (LR), the ratio of conditional probabilities of obtaining a specific marker value among those with the event of interest over those without, provides an easily interpretable way t...

    Authors: Andrew M. Smith, John P. Christodouleas and Wei-Ting Hwang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:108

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Antimalarial efficacy studies in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum are confounded by a new infection (a competing risk event) since this event can potentially preclude a recrudescent event (primar...

    Authors: Prabin Dahal, Philippe J. Guerin, Ric N. Price, Julie A. Simpson and Kasia Stepniewska

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:107

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Net survival, a measure of the survival where the patients would only die from the cancer under study, may be compared between treatment groups using either “cause-specific methods”, when the causes of death a...

    Authors: Juste Aristide Goungounga, Célia Touraine, Nathalie Grafféo and Roch Giorgi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:104

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is the most frequent pediatric cancer. Over the past decades, treatment of cALL has significantly improved, with cure rates close to 90%. However intensive chemoth...

    Authors: Miguel Caubet Fernandez, Simon Drouin, Mariia Samoilenko, Sophia Morel, Maja Krajinovic, Caroline Laverdière, Daniel Sinnett, Emile Levy, Valérie Marcil and Geneviève Lefebvre

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:100

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Despite its popularity, issues concerning the estimation of power in multilevel logistic regression models are prevalent because of the complexity involved in its calculation (i.e., computer-simulation-based a...

    Authors: Oscar L. Olvera Astivia, Anne Gadermann and Martin Guhn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:97

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  14. Content type: Technical advance

    In clinical and epidemiological researches, continuous predictors are often discretized into categorical variables for classification of patients. When the relationship between a continuous predictor and log r...

    Authors: Yimin Chen, Jialing Huang, Xianying He, Yongxiang Gao, Gehendra Mahara, Zhuochen Lin and Jinxin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:96

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  15. Content type: Research article

    While it is widely acknowledged that family burden can be ameliorated with effective psycho-social interventions, how to measure family burden and define a valid cutoff to identify family caregivers in need of...

    Authors: Yu Yu, Zi-Wei Liu, Wei Zhou, Mei Zhao, Bing-Wei Tang and Shui-Yuan Xiao

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:93

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Radiologic assessments of baseline and post-treatment tumor burden are subject to measurement variability, but the impact of this variability on the objective response rate (ORR) and progression rate in specif...

    Authors: Jeong-Hwa Yoon, Soon Ho Yoon and Seokyung Hahn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:90

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Performing well-powered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of new treatments for rare diseases is often infeasible. However, with the increasing availability of historical data, incorporating existing informa...

    Authors: Caroline Brard, Lisa V. Hampson, Nathalie Gaspar, Marie-Cécile Le Deley and Gwénaël Le Teuff

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:85

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Multiple neonatal and pediatric disorders have been linked to older paternal ages. Combining these findings with the evidence that many men are having children at much later ages generates considerable public ...

    Authors: James A. Thompson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:82

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  19. Content type: Software

    Recommended statistical methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies require relatively complex bivariate statistical models which can be a barrier for non-statisticians. A further barrier exi...

    Authors: Suzanne C. Freeman, Clareece R. Kerby, Amit Patel, Nicola J. Cooper, Terry Quinn and Alex J. Sutton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:81

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  20. Content type: Software

    In medical research, explanatory continuous variables are frequently transformed or converted into categorical variables. If the coding is unknown, many tests can be used to identify the “optimal” transformati...

    Authors: Benoit Liquet and Jérémie Riou

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:79

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  21. Content type: Research article

    An important part of the systematic review methodology is appraisal of the risk of bias in included studies. Cochrane systematic reviews are considered golden standard regarding systematic review methodology, ...

    Authors: Andrija Babic, Ruzica Tokalic, João Amílcar Silva Cunha, Ivana Novak, Jelena Suto, Marin Vidak, Ivana Miosic, Ivana Vuka, Tina Poklepovic Pericic and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:76

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  22. Content type: Technical advance

    In clinical trials, study designs may focus on assessment of superiority, equivalence, or non-inferiority, of a new medicine or treatment as compared to a control. Typically, evidence in each of these paradigm...

    Authors: Don van Ravenzwaaij, Rei Monden, Jorge N. Tendeiro and John P. A. Ioannidis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:71

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Chronic respiratory symptoms involving bronchitis, cough and phlegm in children are underappreciated but pose a significant public health burden. Efforts for prevention and management could be supported by an ...

    Authors: Huiyu Deng, Robert Urman, Frank D. Gilliland and Sandrah P. Eckel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:70

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Treatment switching is common in randomised trials of oncology treatments, with control group patients switching onto the experimental treatment during follow-up. This distorts an intention-to-treat comparison...

    Authors: N. R. Latimer, K. R. Abrams and U. Siebert

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:69

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Crowding in the emergency department (ED) is associated with increased mortality, increased treatment cost, and reduced quality of care. Crowding arises when demand exceed resources in the ED and a first sign ...

    Authors: Andreas Halgreen Eiset, Hans Kirkegaard and Mogens Erlandsen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:68

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Following visible successes on a wide range of predictive tasks, machine learning techniques are attracting substantial interest from medical researchers and clinicians. We address the need for capacity develo...

    Authors: Jenni A. M. Sidey-Gibbons and Chris J. Sidey-Gibbons

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:64

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The Scaling Integrated Care in Context (SCIROCCO) tool has been developed to facilitate knowledge transfer and learning about the implementation and scaling-up of integrated care in European regions. To adequa...

    Authors: Liset Grooten, Hubertus Johannes Maria Vrijhoef, Stefano Calciolari, Laura Guadalupe González Ortiz, Marcela Janečková, Mirella M. N. Minkman and Dirk Devroey

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:63

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Meta-analysis is a useful tool for combining evidence from multiple studies to estimate a pooled treatment effect. An extension of meta-analysis, network meta-analysis, is becoming more commonly used as a way ...

    Authors: Martin Law, Navid Alam, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Yi Yu and Dan Jackson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:61

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  29. Content type: Research article

    An a priori design is essential to reduce the risk of bias in systematic reviews (SRs). To this end, authors can register their SR with PROSPERO, and/or publish a SR protocol in an academic journal. The latter...

    Authors: Tanja Rombey, Katharina Allers, Tim Mathes, Falk Hoffmann and Dawid Pieper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:57

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  30. Content type: Technical advance

    Family health history (FHH) inherently involves collecting proxy reports of health statuses of related family members. Traditionally, such information has been collected from a single informant. More recently,...

    Authors: Jielu Lin, Melanie F. Myers, Laura M. Koehly and Christopher Steven Marcum

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:56

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Choosing the most performing method in terms of outcome prediction or variables selection is a recurring problem in prognosis studies, leading to many publications on methods comparison. But some aspects have ...

    Authors: Simon Bussy, Raphaël Veil, Vincent Looten, Anita Burgun, Stéphane Gaïffas, Agathe Guilloux, Brigitte Ranque and Anne-Sophie Jannot

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:50

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  32. Content type: Research article

    In clinical trials and survival analysis, participants may be excluded from the study due to withdrawal, which is often referred to as lost-to-follow-up (LTF). It is natural to argue that a disease would be ce...

    Authors: Jinheum Kim, Jayoun Kim and Seong W. Kim

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:49

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The use of correlates of protection (CoPs) in vaccination trials offers significant advantages as useful clinical endpoint substitutes. Vaccines with very high vaccine efficacy (VE) are documented in the liter...

    Authors: Andrea Callegaro and Fabian Tibaldi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:47

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  34. Content type: Review

    With progress on both the theoretical and the computational fronts the use of spline modelling has become an established tool in statistical regression analysis. An important issue in spline modelling is the a...

    Authors: Aris Perperoglou, Willi Sauerbrei, Michal Abrahamowicz and Matthias Schmid

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:46

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The use of guidelines has shown to improve clinical practice process and structure of health care, but health care providers don’t always use and keep up-to-date with the new clinical practice guidelines. Nurs...

    Authors: Wen Yan, Qian Chen, Xuemei Zhang, Marko Elovainio and Yan Huang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:40

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  36. Content type: Technical advance

    Patient-reported outcome measures developed using Classical Test Theory are commonly comprised of ordinal level items on a Likert response scale are problematic as they do not permit the results to be compared...

    Authors: Michael Robinson, Andrew M. Johnson, David M. Walton and Joy C. MacDermid

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:36

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Mixed effects models have been widely applied in clinical trials that involve longitudinal repeated measurements, which possibly contain missing outcome data. In meta-analysis of individual participant data (I...

    Authors: Hisashi Noma, Kazushi Maruo, Masahiko Gosho, Stephen Z. Levine, Yair Goldberg, Stefan Leucht and Toshi A. Furukawa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:33

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  38. Content type: Research article

    In some clinical situations, patients experience repeated events of the same type. Among these, cancer recurrences can result in terminal events such as death. Therefore, here we dynamically predicted the risk...

    Authors: Isao Yokota and Yutaka Matsuyama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:31

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Recent advances in sensor technologies have promoted the use of consumer-based accelerometers such as Fitbit Flex in epidemiological and clinical research; however, the validity of the Fitbit Flex in measuring...

    Authors: Nicklaus Redenius, Youngwon Kim and Wonwoo Byun

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:29

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  40. Content type: Research article

    It is common in applied epidemiological and clinical research to convert continuous variables into categorical variables by grouping values into categories. Such categorized variables are then often used as ex...

    Authors: Magne Thoresen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:28

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  41. Content type: Research article

    In a qualitative evidence synthesis, too much data due to a large number of studies can undermine our ability to perform a thorough analysis. Purposive sampling of primary studies for inclusion in the synthesi...

    Authors: Heather Ames, Claire Glenton and Simon Lewin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:26

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Within cancer care, dynamic evaluations of the loss in expectation of life provides useful information to patients as well as physicians. The loss of lifetime function yields the conditional loss in expectatio...

    Authors: Lasse H. Jakobsen, Therese M.-L. Andersson, Jorne L. Biccler, Tarec C. El-Galaly and Martin Bøgsted

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:23

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Health economic models are critical tools to inform reimbursement agencies on health care interventions. Many clinical trials report outcomes using the frequency of an event over a set period of time, for exam...

    Authors: Gian Luca Di Tanna, Joshua K. Porter, Richard B. Lipton, Alan Brennan, Stephen Palmer, Anthony J. Hatswell, Sandhya Sapra and Guillermo Villa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:20

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Logistic regression is often used for mediation analysis with a dichotomous outcome. However, previous studies showed that the indirect effect and proportion mediated are often affected by a change of scales i...

    Authors: Judith J. M. Rijnhart, Jos W. R. Twisk, Iris Eekhout and Martijn W. Heymans

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:19

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP), bispectral index (BIS), and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) represent valuable, yet dynamic intraoperative monitoring variables. They provide information related to poor outc...

    Authors: Michael P. Schnetz, Harry S. Hochheiser, David J. Danks, Douglas P. Landsittel, Keith M. Vogt, James W. Ibinson, Steven L. Whitehurst, Sean P. McDermott, Melissa Giraldo Duque and Ata M. Kaynar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:17

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Longitudinal categorical variables are sometimes restricted in terms of how individuals transition between categories over time. For example, with a time-dependent measure of smoking categorised as never-smoke...

    Authors: Anurika Priyanjali De Silva, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Alysha Madhu De Livera, Katherine Jane Lee and Julie Anne Simpson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:14

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