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Data analysis, statistics and modelling

Section edited by Chiu-Hsieh (Paul) Hsu

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how statistical techniques can impact study results along with manuscripts that propose new statistical methods that have an application in medical research.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    The reliability of spatial statistics is often put into question because real spatial variations may not be found, especially in heterogeneous areas. Our objective was to compare empirically different cluster ...

    Authors: Juste Aristide Goungounga, Jean Gaudart, Marc Colonna and Roch Giorgi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:136

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Network meta-analysis methods, which are an extension of the standard pair-wise synthesis framework, allow for the simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions and consideration of the entire body of evid...

    Authors: Pedro Saramago, Beth Woods, Helen Weatherly, Andrea Manca, Mark Sculpher, Kamran Khan, Andrew J. Vickers and Hugh MacPherson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:131

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  3. Content type: Research Article

    In population-based cancer research, piecewise exponential regression models are used to derive adjusted estimates of excess mortality due to cancer using the Poisson generalized linear modelling framework. Ho...

    Authors: Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Aurélien Belot, Manuela Quaresma, Camille Maringe, Michel P. Coleman and Bernard Rachet

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:129

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  4. Content type: Research article

    New markers hold the promise of improving risk prediction for individual patients. We aimed to compare the performance of different strategies to extend a previously developed prediction model with a new marker.

    Authors: D. Nieboer, Y. Vergouwe, Danna P. Ankerst, Monique J. Roobol and Ewout W. Steyerberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:128

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  5. Content type: Research article

    One of the best sources for high quality information about healthcare interventions is a systematic review. A well-conducted systematic review includes a comprehensive literature search. There is limited empir...

    Authors: Lisa Hartling, Robin Featherstone, Megan Nuspl, Kassi Shave, Donna M. Dryden and Ben Vandermeer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:127

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Bias in adolescent self-reported height and weight is well documented. Given the importance and widespread use of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) data for obesity res...

    Authors: Janet M. Liechty, Xuan Bi and Annie Qu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:124

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Compelled by the intuitive appeal of predicting each individual patient’s risk of an outcome, there is a growing interest in risk prediction models. While the statistical methods used to build prediction model...

    Authors: Laura Schummers, Katherine P. Himes, Lisa M. Bodnar and Jennifer A. Hutcheon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:123

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  8. Content type: Research Article

    Persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PPA) infection promotes lung function deterioration in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although early CF diagnosis through newborn screening (NBS) has been shown to provi...

    Authors: Wenjie Wang, Ming-Hui Chen, Sy Han Chiou, Hui-Chuan Lai, Xiaojing Wang, Jun Yan and Zhumin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:122

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  9. Content type: Research Article

    There has been some debate in the literature as to whether baseline values of a measurement of interest at treatment initiation should be treated as an outcome variable as part of a model for longitudinal chan...

    Authors: Oliver T. Stirrup, Abdel G. Babiker and Andrew J. Copas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:121

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Available methods for the joint modelling of longitudinal and time-to-event outcomes have typically only allowed for a single longitudinal outcome and a solitary event time. In practice, clinical studies are l...

    Authors: Graeme L. Hickey, Pete Philipson, Andrea Jorgensen and Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:117

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  11. Content type: Research Article

    Confidence intervals for the between study variance are useful in random-effects meta-analyses because they quantify the uncertainty in the corresponding point estimates. Methods for calculating these confiden...

    Authors: Dan Jackson and Jack Bowden

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:118

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  12. Content type: Research Article

    When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary ov...

    Authors: Martin Wolkewitz, Ben S. Cooper, Mercedes Palomar-Martinez, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Pedro Olaechea-Astigarraga, Adrian G. Barnett and Martin Schumacher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:116

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Geographic perspectives of disease and the human condition often involve point-based observations and questions of clustering or dispersion within a spatial context. These problems involve a finite set of poin...

    Authors: Peter A. Whigham, Brandon de Graaf, Rashmi Srivastava and Paul Glue

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:115

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The 2 × 2 factorial design is widely used for assessing the existence of interaction and the extent of generalizability of two factors where each factor had only two levels. Accordingly, research problems asso...

    Authors: Show-Li Jan and Gwowen Shieh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:114

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  15. Content type: Research Article

    Reporting of absolute risk difference (RD) is recommended for clinical and epidemiological prospective studies. In analyses of multicenter studies, adjustment for center is necessary when randomization is stra...

    Authors: Claudia Pedroza and Van Thi Thanh Truong

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:113

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  16. Content type: Research article

    It is often unclear which approach to fit, assess and adjust a model will yield the most accurate prediction model. We present an extension of an approach for comparing modelling strategies in linear regressio...

    Authors: Romin Pajouheshnia, Wiebe R. Pestman, Steven Teerenstra and Rolf H. H. Groenwold

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:107

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  17. Content type: Research article

    A specific measurement issue often occurs in cohort studies with long-term follow-up: the substitution of the classic instruments used to assess one or several factors or outcomes studied by new, more reliable...

    Authors: Alexandra Rouquette, Sylvana M. Côté, Jean-Benoit Hardouin and Bruno Falissard

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:105

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The case-crossover design is an attractive alternative to the classical case–control design which can be used to study the onset of acute events if the risk factors of interest vary in time. By comparing expos...

    Authors: Sam Doerken, Maja Mockenhaupt, Luigi Naldi, Martin Schumacher and Peggy Sekula

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:103

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In stark contrast to network-centric view for complex disease, regression-based methods are preferred in disease prediction, especially for epidemiologists and clinical professionals. It remains a controversy ...

    Authors: Xiaoshuai Zhang, Zhongshang Yuan, Jiadong Ji, Hongkai Li and Fuzhong Xue

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:100

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  20. Content type: Research Article

    In meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy, routinely only one pair of sensitivity and specificity per study is used. However, for tests based on a biomarker or a questionnaire often more than one threshold ...

    Authors: Susanne Steinhauser, Martin Schumacher and Gerta Rücker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:97

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Reliability of measurements is a prerequisite of medical research. For nominal data, Fleiss’ kappa (in the following labelled as Fleiss’ K) and Krippendorff’s alpha provide the highest flexibility of the avail...

    Authors: Antonia Zapf, Stefanie Castell, Lars Morawietz and André Karch

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:93

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  22. Content type: Research Article

    Meta-analytical methods are frequently used to combine dose-response findings expressed in terms of relative risks. However, no methodology has been established when results are summarized in terms of differen...

    Authors: Alessio Crippa and Nicola Orsini

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:91

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  23. Content type: Research Article

    Meta-analysis is a valuable tool for combining evidence from multiple studies. Network meta-analysis is becoming more widely used as a means to compare multiple treatments in the same analysis. However, a netw...

    Authors: Martin Law, Dan Jackson, Rebecca Turner, Kirsty Rhodes and Wolfgang Viechtbauer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:87

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  24. Content type: Research article

    When data needed to inform parameters in decision models are lacking, formal elicitation of expert judgement can be used to characterise parameter uncertainty. Although numerous methods for eliciting expert op...

    Authors: Bogdan Grigore, Jaime Peters, Christopher Hyde and Ken Stein

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:85

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Missing data are a common problem in prospective studies with a long follow-up, and the volume, pattern and reasons for missing data may be relevant when estimating the cost of illness. We aimed to evaluate th...

    Authors: Mark Belger, Josep Maria Haro, Catherine Reed, Michael Happich, Kristin Kahle-Wrobleski, Josep Maria Argimon, Giuseppe Bruno, Richard Dodel, Roy W Jones, Bruno Vellas and Anders Wimo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:83

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a novel approach in drug use epidemiology which aims to monitor the extent of use of various drugs in a community. In this study, we investigate functional principal comp...

    Authors: Stefania Salvatore, Jørgen G. Bramness and Jo Røislien

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:81

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:34

  27. Content type: Research article

    The number of clusters in a cluster randomized trial is often low. It is therefore likely random assignment of clusters to treatment conditions results in covariate imbalance. There are no studies that quantif...

    Authors: Mirjam Moerbeek and Sander van Schie

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:79

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  28. Content type: Research Article

    Within-person variation in dietary records can lead to biased estimates of the distribution of food intake. Quantile estimation is especially relevant in the case of skewed distributions and in the estimation ...

    Authors: Julia Chernova and Ivonne Solis-Trapala

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:78

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  29. Content type: Research article

    A study of pregnancy outcomes related to pregnancy in prison in New South Wales, Australia, designed a two stage linkage to add maternal history of incarceration and serious mental health morbidity, neonatal h...

    Authors: Lisa Hilder, Jane R. Walker, Michael H. Levy and Elizabeth A. Sullivan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:72

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Previous reviews have focussed on the rationale for employing the stepped wedge design (SWD), the areas of research to which the design has been applied and the general characteristics of the design. However t...

    Authors: D. Barker, P. McElduff, C. D’Este and M. J. Campbell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:69

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Multi-Arm Multi-Stage designs aim at comparing several new treatments to a common reference, in order to select or drop any treatment arm to move forward when such evidence already exists based on interim anal...

    Authors: Louis Jacob, Maria Uvarova, Sandrine Boulet, Inva Begaj and Sylvie Chevret

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:67

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  32. Content type: Research Article

    The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is commonly used to quantify exercise capacity in patients with several cardio-pulmonary diseases. Oxygen uptake (

    Authors: Florent Baty, Christian Ritz, Arnoldus van Gestel, Martin Brutsche and Daniel Gerhard

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:66

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  33. Content type: Research Article

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures play a key role in the advancement of patient-centered care research. The accuracy of inferences, relevance of predictions, and the true nature of the associations made ...

    Authors: N. Maritza Dowling, Daniel M. Bolt, Sien Deng and Chenxi Li

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:63

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive tes...

    Authors: Jan Stochl, Jan R. Böhnke, Kate E. Pickett and Tim J. Croudace

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:58

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  35. Content type: Research Article

    A 44 % increase was observed in admissions to neonatal intensive care of babies born ≤26 weeks completed gestational age in England between 1995 and 2006. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) may provide suppleme...

    Authors: Andrei S. Morgan, Neil Marlow, Kate Costeloe and Elizabeth S. Draper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:57

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  36. Content type: Debate

    Complexity has been linked to health interventions in two ways: first as a property of the intervention, and secondly as a property of the system into which the intervention is implemented. The former recogniz...

    Authors: James Greenwood-Lee, Penelope Hawe, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Alan Shiell and Deborah A. Marshall

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:51

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Several indirect comparison methods, including network meta-analyses (NMAs), using individual patient data (IPD) have been developed to synthesize evidence from a network of trials. Although IPD indirect compa...

    Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sharon E. Straus, Charlene Soobiah, Meghan J. Elliott and Andrea C. Tricco

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:47

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  38. Content type: Technical advance

    The UK population is ageing; improved understanding of risk factors for hospital admission is required. Linkage of the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS) with Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data has created a...

    Authors: Leo D. Westbury, Holly E. Syddall, Shirley J. Simmonds, Cyrus Cooper and Avan Aihie Sayer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:46

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The primary analysis in a longitudinal randomized controlled trial is sometimes a comparison of arms at a single time point. While a two-sample t-test is often used, missing data are common in longitudinal studie...

    Authors: Erin L. Ashbeck and Melanie L. Bell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:43

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Although covariate adjustment in the analysis of randomised trials can be beneficial, adjustment for continuous covariates is complicated by the fact that the association between covariate and outcome must be ...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Helen Rushton, Tim P. Morris and Rhian M. Daniel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:42

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Regression models are widely used to link serial measures of anthropometric size or changes in size to a later outcome. Different parameterisations of these models enable one to target different questions abou...

    Authors: Andrew K. Wills, Bjørn Heine Strand, Kari Glavin, Richard J. Silverwood and Ragnhild Hovengen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:41

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Regular and timely monitoring of blood glucose (BG) levels in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus is crucial to optimizing inpatient glycaemic control. However, methods to quantify timeliness as a mea...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Shih Ling Kao, E-Shyong Tai, Hwee Lin Wee, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, Yilin Ning, Mark Kevin Salloway, Xiaodong Deng and Chuen Seng Tan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:40

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  43. Content type: Research Article

    Observational post-marketing assessment studies often involve evaluating the effect of a rare treatment on a time-to-event outcome, through the estimation of a marginal hazard ratio. Propensity score (PS) meth...

    Authors: David Hajage, Florence Tubach, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Deepak L. Bhatt and Yann De Rycke

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016 16:38

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