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Data analysis, statistics and modelling

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how statistical techniques can impact study results along with manuscripts that propose new statistical methods that have an application in medical research.

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  1. Bayesian adaptive methods are increasingly being used to design clinical trials and offer several advantages over traditional approaches. Decisions at analysis points are usually based on the posterior distrib...

    Authors: Elizabeth G. Ryan, Kristian Brock, Simon Gates and Daniel Slade

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:150

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Stratification analyses have been widely utilized in molecular association meta-analyses to estimate the interaction between genetic and environmental factors or to control for the confounding variables linked...

    Authors: Shuhuang Lin, Yukun Ma and Zunnan Huang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:147

    Content type: Technical advance

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  3. Despite widespread use, the accuracy of the diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection is poorly understood. The aim of our work was to better quantify misclassification errors in identification of true cases of...

    Authors: Igor Burstyn, Neal D. Goldstein and Paul Gustafson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:146

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The change in two measurements of a continuous outcome can be modelled directly with a linear regression model, or indirectly with a random effects model (REM) of the individual measurements. These methods are...

    Authors: Yilin Ning, Nathalie C. Støer, Peh Joo Ho, Shih Ling Kao, Kee Yuan Ngiam, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, Soo Chin Lee, E-Shyong Tai, Mikael Hartman, Marie Reilly and Chuen Seng Tan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:145

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Person-environment fit, which examines the individual’s perceptions of if, and in what way, he or she is compatible with aspects of the work context, offers a promising conceptual model for understanding emplo...

    Authors: J. Herkes, L. A. Ellis, K. Churruca and J. Braithwaite

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:144

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Although null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the agreed gold standard in medical decision making and the most widespread inferential framework used in medical research, it has several drawbacks. Bay...

    Authors: Riko Kelter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:142

    Content type: Software

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  7. There is a growing trend in using the “statistically significant” term in the scientific literature. However, harsh criticism of this concept motivated the recommendation to withdraw its use of scientific publ...

    Authors: Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano, Fernando Morelli Calixto and José Mário Nunes da Silva

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:140

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Continuous reference intervals (RIs) allow for more precise consideration of the dynamic changes of physiological development, which can provide new strategies for the presentation of laboratory test results. ...

    Authors: Kun Li, Lixin Hu, Yaguang Peng, Ruohua Yan, Qiliang Li, Xiaoxia Peng, Wenqi Song and Xin Ni

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:136

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Observational longitudinal data often feature irregular, informative visit times. We propose descriptive measures to quantify the extent of irregularity to select an appropriate analytic outcome approach.

    Authors: Armend Lokku, Lily S. Lim, Catherine S. Birken and Eleanor M. Pullenayegum

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:135

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Elderly population’s health is a major concern for most industrial nations. National health surveys provide a measure of the state of elderly health. One such survey is the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevi...

    Authors: Elsa Vazquez-Arreola, Dan Xue and Jeffrey R. Wilson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:128

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Effective health care requires services that are responsive to local needs and contexts. Achieving this in indigenous settings implies communication between traditional and conventional medicine perspectives. ...

    Authors: Ivan Sarmiento, Sergio Paredes-Solís, David Loutfi, Anna Dion, Anne Cockcroft and Neil Andersson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:125

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is often measured using EQ-5D-3L by the elicitation methods of visual analogue scale (VAS) and time trade-off (TTO). Although many countries have constructed both nationa...

    Authors: Xiuying Wang, Lin Zhuo, Yifei Ma, Ting Cai, Aviva Must, Ling Xu and Lang Zhuo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:118

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly prevalent and presents a large treatment gap. Self-help internet interventions are an attractive approach to lowering thresholds for seeking help and disseminating evidence...

    Authors: Philip Lindner, Magnus Johansson, Mikael Gajecki and Anne H. Berman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:111

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Machine learning (ML) has made a significant impact in medicine and cancer research; however, its impact in these areas has been undeniably slower and more limited than in other application domains. A major re...

    Authors: Andre Goncalves, Priyadip Ray, Braden Soper, Jennifer Stevens, Linda Coyle and Ana Paula Sales

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:108

    Content type: Research Article

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  15. Most structured clinical data, such as diagnosis codes, are not sufficient to obtain precise phenotypes and assess disease burden. Text mining of clinical notes could provide a basis for detailed profiles of p...

    Authors: Freja Karuna Hemmingsen Sørup, Søren Brunak and Robert Eriksson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:107

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Synthesis of psychometric properties of substance use measures to identify patterns of use and substance use disorders remains limited. To address this gap, we sought to systematically evaluate the psychometri...

    Authors: Glenn-Milo Santos, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Nabila El-Bassel, Poonam Patel, Divya Subramanian, Danielle Horyniak, Ryan R. Cook, Charlotte McCullagh, Phillip Marotta, Foram Choksi, Brian Kang, Isabel Allen and Steven Shoptaw

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:106

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Sum scores of ordinal outcomes are common in randomized clinical trials. The approaches routinely employed for assessing treatment effects, such as t-tests or Wilcoxon tests, are not particularly powerful in dete...

    Authors: Muriel Buri, Armin Curt, John Steeves and Torsten Hothorn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:104

    Content type: Research Article

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  18. To demonstrate how the Observational Healthcare Data Science and Informatics (OHDSI) collaborative network and standardization can be utilized to scale-up external validation of patient-level prediction models...

    Authors: Jenna M. Reps, Ross D. Williams, Seng Chan You, Thomas Falconer, Evan Minty, Alison Callahan, Patrick B. Ryan, Rae Woong Park, Hong-Seok Lim and Peter Rijnbeek

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:102

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The co-occurrence of two or more medical conditions in the same individual is not uncommon. If disability-adjusted life year (DALY) calculations are carried out for each condition separately, multimorbidity ma...

    Authors: Scott A. McDonald, Juanita A. Haagsma, Alessandro Cassini and Brecht Devleesschauwer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:100

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Previous studies indicate that the prevalence of hypothyroidism is much higher in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) than in the general population, and is associated with LN’s activity. Principal component an...

    Authors: Ting Huang, Jiarong Li and Weiru Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:99

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Oral cancer is the most common cancer among Indian men, and has strong tendency of metastatic spread to neck lymph node which strongly influences prognosis especially 5 year survival-rate and also guides the r...

    Authors: Vishwajeet Singh, Sada Nand Dwivedi and S. V. S. Deo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:95

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In clinical research, there is an increasing interest in joint modelling of longitudinal and time-to-event data, since it reduces bias in parameter estimation and increases the efficiency of statistical infere...

    Authors: Maha Alsefri, Maria Sudell, Marta García-Fiñana and Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:94

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Visual displays such as charts and tables may significantly moderate the effects of audit and feedback interventions, but the systematic study of these intervention components will likely remain limited withou...

    Authors: Dahee Lee, Veena Panicker, Colin Gross, Jessica Zhang and Zach Landis-Lewis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:90

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The replication crisis hit the medical sciences about a decade ago, but today still most of the flaws inherent in null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) have not been solved. While the drawbacks of p-values ...

    Authors: Riko Kelter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:88

    Content type: Research Article

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  25. Repeatability and reproducibility are essential for clinicians for several purposes. Although discouraged, use of the Coefficient of Variation (CV) for assessing repeatability and reproducibility, rather than ...

    Authors: Giovanna Cilluffo, Anna Maria Zicari, Giuliana Ferrante, Velia Malizia, Salvatore Fasola, Marzia Duse, Giovanna De Castro, Valentina De Vittori, Laura Schiavi, Giulia Brindisi, Paolo Petrelli and Stefania La Grutta

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:86

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Predictive models within epilepsy are frequently developed via Cox’s proportional hazards models. These models estimate risk of a specified event such as 12-month remission. They are relatively simple to produ...

    Authors: Laura J. Bonnett, Jane L. Hutton and Anthony G. Marson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:84

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Electronic Health Records (EHR) has been increasingly used as a tool to monitor population health. However, subject-level errors in the records can yield biased estimates of health indicators. There is an urge...

    Authors: Ryung S. Kim and Viswanathan Shankar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:77

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery associated with important morbidity, mortality, and costs. To assess the effectiveness of preventive interventions, an imp...

    Authors: Jonathan Bourgon Labelle, Paul Farand, Christian Vincelette, Myriam Dumont, Mathilde Le Blanc and Christian M. Rochefort

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Information on the associations between pre-diagnosis health behavior and post-diagnosis survival time in esophageal cancer could assist in planning health services but can be difficult to obtain using establi...

    Authors: Paul P. Fahey, Andrew Page, Glenn Stone and Thomas Astell-Burt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:74

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The mortality risk among cancer patients measured from the time of diagnosis is often elevated in comparison to the general population. However, for some cancer types, the patient mortality risk will over time...

    Authors: Lasse H. Jakobsen, Therese M.-L. Andersson, Jorne L. Biccler, Laurids Ø. Poulsen, Marianne T. Severinsen, Tarec C. El-Galaly and Martin Bøgsted

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research Article

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  31. It is important to estimate the treatment effect of interest accurately and precisely within the analysis of randomised controlled trials. One way to increase precision in the estimate and thus improve the pow...

    Authors: Hanaya Raad, Victoria Cornelius, Susan Chan, Elizabeth Williamson and Suzie Cro

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:70

    Content type: Research article

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  32. With the growth in use of biotherapic drugs in various medical fields, the occurrence of anti-drug antibodies represents nowadays a serious issue. This immune response against a drug can be due either to pre-e...

    Authors: Julianne Duhazé, Miguel Caubet, Signe Hässler, Delphine Bachelet, Matthieu Allez, Florian Deisenhammer, Anna Fogdell-Hahn, Aude Gleizes, Salima Hacein-Bey-Abina, Xavier Mariette, Marc Pallardy and Philippe Broët

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:69

    Content type: Research Article

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  33. Missing data are an inevitable challenge in Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs), particularly those with Patient Reported Outcome Measures. Methodological guidance suggests that to avoid incorrect conclusions,...

    Authors: Alexina J. Mason, Richard D. Grieve, Alvin Richards-Belle, Paul R. Mouncey, David A. Harrison and James R. Carpenter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:66

    Content type: Technical Advance

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  34. Sero- prevalence studies often have a problem of missing data. Few studies report the proportion of missing data and even fewer describe the methods used to adjust the results for missing data. The objective o...

    Authors: Neema R. Mosha, Omololu S. Aluko, Jim Todd, Rhoderick Machekano and Taryn Young

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:65

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Cox proportional hazards regression models are used to evaluate associations between exposures of interest and time-to-event outcomes in observational data. When exposures are measured on only a sample of part...

    Authors: Colleen M. Sitlani, Thomas Lumley, Barbara McKnight, Kenneth M. Rice, Nels C. Olson, Margaret F. Doyle, Sally A. Huber, Russell P. Tracy, Bruce M. Psaty and Joseph A. C. Delaney

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:62

    Content type: Research Article

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  36. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood mental health disorders. Stimulant drugs as the most commonly used treatment and first-line therapy for ADHD have side effect...

    Authors: Hoda Shirafkan, Javad Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Akbar Fotouhi, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpur, Mehdi Yaseri and Mostafa Hoseini

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Claims-based algorithms are commonly used to identify sepsis in health services research because the laboratory features required to define clinical criteria may not be available in administrative data.

    Authors: John P. Donnelly, Yuling Dai, Lisandro D. Colantonio, Hong Zhao, Monika M. Safford, John W. Baddley, Paul Muntner and Henry E. Wang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:54

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The health regulatory focus is an application of Higgins’ regulatory focus theory to a health-specific context. It explains individual differences in health motivation, strategies, and behavior. Previous resea...

    Authors: Bjarne Schmalbach, Markus Zenger, Elmar Brähler and Katja Petrowski

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:51

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Longitudinal randomized controlled trials (RCTs) often aim to test and measure the effect of treatment between arms at a single time point. A two-sample χ2 test is a common statistical approach when outcome data ...

    Authors: Mary L. Miller, Denise J. Roe, Chengcheng Hu and Melanie L. Bell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:50

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Missing participant outcome data (MOD) are ubiquitous in systematic reviews with network meta-analysis (NMA) as they invade from the inclusion of clinical trials with reported participant losses. There are ava...

    Authors: Loukia M. Spineli and Chrysostomos Kalyvas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:48

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The main goal of this study is to explore the use of features representing patient-level electronic health record (EHR) data, generated by the unsupervised deep learning algorithm autoencoder, in predictive mo...

    Authors: Lei Wang, Liping Tong, Darcy Davis, Tim Arnold and Tina Esposito

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:37

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Network meta-analysis (NMA) is becoming increasingly popular in systematic reviews and health technology assessments. However, there is still ambiguity concerning the properties of the estimation approaches as...

    Authors: Corinna Kiefer, Sibylle Sturtz and Ralf Bender

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:36

    Content type: Research Article

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  43. There is broad recognition of the importance of evidence in informing clinical decisions. When information from all studies included in a systematic review (“review”) does not contribute to a meta-analysis, de...

    Authors: Ian J. Saldanha, Kristina B. Lindsley, Sarah Money, Hannah J. Kimmel, Bryant T. Smith and Kay Dickersin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:30

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Personalized healthcare promises to successfully advance the treatment of heterogeneous neurological disorders such as relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis by addressing the caveats of traditional healthcare...

    Authors: E. Stühler, S. Braune, F. Lionetto, Y. Heer, E. Jules, C. Westermann, A. Bergmann and P. van Hövell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:24

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Cohen’s κ coefficient is often used as an index to measure the agreement of inter-rater determinations. However, κ varies greatly depending on the marginal distribution of the target population and overestimates ...

    Authors: Chikara Honda and Tetsuji Ohyama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:20

    Content type: Research article

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