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Data collection, quality, and reporting

This section considers manuscripts that assess quality aspects of data collected in all types of medical research studies, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, along with how the data are reported in published form.

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  1. Scores on an outcome measurement instrument depend on the type and settings of the instrument used, how instructions are given to patients, how professionals administer and score the instrument, etc. The impac...

    Authors: L. B. Mokkink, M. Boers, C. P. M. van der Vleuten, L. M. Bouter, J. Alonso, D. L. Patrick, H. C. W. de Vet and C. B. Terwee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:293

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. The quality of data obtained through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) is highly dependent on appropriate design and facilitation. In low-income settings steep power gradients between researcher and participants,...

    Authors: Pauline F. D. Scheelbeek, Yashua A. Hamza, Joanna Schellenberg and Zelee Hill

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:287

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Systematic reviews allow health decisions to be informed by the best available research evidence. However, their number is proliferating quickly, and many skills are required to identify all the relevant revie...

    Authors: Gabriel Rada, Daniel Pérez, Felipe Araya-Quintanilla, Camila Ávila, Gonzalo Bravo-Soto, Rocío Bravo-Jeria, Aldo Cánepa, Daniel Capurro, Victoria Castro-Gutiérrez, Valeria Contreras, Javiera Edwards, Jorge Faúndez, Damián Garrido, Magdalena Jiménez, Valentina Llovet, Diego Lobos…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:286

    Content type: Database

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  4. While there is wide consensus that the public should be consulted about emerging technology early in development, it is difficult to elicit public opinion about innovations unfamiliar to lay audiences. We soug...

    Authors: Cynthia E. Schairer, Cynthia Triplett, Anna Buchman, Omar S. Akbari and Cinnamon S. Bloss

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:273

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. Recruitment of research participants poses challenges in socioeconomically deprived areas. The Awareness and Beliefs About Cancer (ABACus) phase 3 Randomised Control Trial recruited adult participants from soc...

    Authors: Vasiliki Kolovou, Yvonne Moriarty, Stephanie Gilbert, Harriet Quinn-Scoggins, Julia Townson, Louise Padgett, Sioned Owen, Peter Buckle, Adrian Edwards, Julie Hepburn, Mandy Lau, Maura Matthews, Caroline Mitchell, Richard Neal, Rebecca Playle, Mike Robling…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:272

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. Aboriginal people are under-reported on administrative health data in Australia. Various approaches have been used or proposed to improve reporting of Aboriginal people using linked records. This cross-section...

    Authors: Michael A. Nelson, Kim Lim, Jason Boyd, Damien Cordery, Allan Went, David Meharg, Lisa Jackson-Pulver, Scott Winch and Lee K. Taylor

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:267

    Content type: Research article

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  7. A competing interest is an important source of bias in research and disclosure is frequently employed as a strategy to manage it. Considering the importance of systematic reviews (SRs) and the varying prevalen...

    Authors: Jiajie Yu, Guanyue Su, Allison Hirst, Zhengyue Yang, You Zhang and Youping Li

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:260

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Data extraction forms link systematic reviews with primary research and provide the foundation for appraising, analysing, summarising and interpreting a body of evidence. This makes their development, pilot te...

    Authors: Roland Brian Büchter, Alina Weise and Dawid Pieper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:259

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Systematic reviews often require substantial resources, partially due to the large number of records identified during searching. Although artificial intelligence may not be ready to fully replace human review...

    Authors: C. Hamel, S. E. Kelly, K. Thavorn, D. B. Rice, G. A. Wells and B. Hutton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:256

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Web-surveys are increasingly used in population studies. Yet, web-surveys targeting older individuals are still uncommon for various reasons. However, with younger cohorts approaching older age, the potentials...

    Authors: Susanne Kelfve, Marie Kivi, Boo Johansson and Magnus Lindwall

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Acute Care Surgery (ACS) was developed as a structured, team-based approach to providing round-the-clock emergency general surgery (EGS) care for adult patients needing treatment for diseases such as cholecyst...

    Authors: Heena P. Santry, Scott A. Strassels, Angela M. Ingraham, Wendelyn M. Oslock, Kevin B. Ricci, Anghela Z. Paredes, Victor K. Heh, Holly E. Baselice, Amy P. Rushing, Adrian Diaz, Vijaya T. Daniel, M. Didem Ayturk and Catarina I. Kiefe

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:247

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Guidelines on public health and health system interventions often involve considerations beyond effectiveness and safety to account for the impact that these interventions have on the wider systems in which th...

    Authors: A. Movsisyan, E. Rehfuess and S. L. Norris

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:245

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  13. There is consensus that health services commissioning and clinical practice should be driven by scientific evidence. However, workload pressures, accessibility of peer reviewed publications and skills to find,...

    Authors: Joanna K. Anderson, Emma Howarth, Maris Vainre, Ayla Humphrey, Peter B. Jones and Tamsin J. Ford

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:242

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Bias in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can lead to underestimation or overestimation of the true effects of interventions. Surgical RCTs may suffer from the risk of bias (RoB) that is avoidable in trials ...

    Authors: Ognjen Barcot, Matija Boric, Svjetlana Dosenovic, Marija Cavar, Antonia Jelicic Kadic, Tina Poklepovic Pericic, Ivana Vukicevic, Ivana Vuka and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:240

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Master of public health (MPH) plays an important role in Chinese medical education, and the dissertations is an important part of MPH education. In MPH dissertations, most are observational studies. Compared w...

    Authors: Shuangyang Dai, Xiaobin Zhou, Hong Xu, Beibei Li and Jingao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:230

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. Claims databases are generally considered inadequate for obesity research due to suboptimal capture of body mass index (BMI) measurements. This might not be true for bariatric surgery because of reimbursement ...

    Authors: Xiaojuan Li, Kristina H. Lewis, Katherine Callaway, J. Frank Wharam and Sengwee Toh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:225

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Clinical Trials (CTs) help in testing and validating the safety and efficacy of newly discovered drugs on specific patient population cohorts. However, these trials usually experience many challenges, such as ...

    Authors: Ilhaam A. Omar, Raja Jayaraman, Khaled Salah, Mecit Can Emre Simsekler, Ibrar Yaqoob and Samer Ellahham

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:224

    Content type: Technical advance

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  18. Clinical uncertainty and equipoise are vague notions that play important roles in contemporary problems of medical care and research, including the design and conduct of pragmatic trials. Our goal was to show ...

    Authors: Robert Fahed, Tim E. Darsaut, Behzad Farzin, Miguel Chagnon and Jean Raymond

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:214

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Although protocol registration of systematic reviews/meta-analysis (SR/MA) is still not mandatory, it is highly recommended that authors publish their SR/MA protocols prior to submitting their manuscripts for ...

    Authors: Gehad Mohamed Tawfik, Hoang Thi Nam Giang, Sherief Ghozy, Ahmed M. Altibi, Hend Kandil, Huu-Hoai Le, Peter Samuel Eid, Ibrahim Radwan, Omar Mohamed Makram, Tong Thi Thu Hien, Mahmoud Sherif, As-Saba Hossain, Tai Luu Lam Thang, Livia Puljak, Hosni Salem, Tarek Numair…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:213

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Longitudinal cohort studies have made significant contributions to medical discoveries and provide the impetus for health interventions which reduce the risk of disease. Establishing and maintaining these coho...

    Authors: Leesa Costello, Julie Dare, Manon Dontje and Leon Straker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:202

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. While conducting systemic reviews, searching for ongoing or unpublished trials is critical to address publication bias. As of April 2019, records of ongoing or unpublished randomized and/or quasi-randomized co...

    Authors: Masahiro Banno, Yasushi Tsujimoto and Yuki Kataoka

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:200

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Although the WHO Trial Registration Data Set (TRDS) has been published for many years, the quality of clinical trial registrations with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is still not satisfactory, especially ...

    Authors: Xuan Zhang, Liang Lan, Jacky C. P. Chan, Linda L. D. Zhong, Chung-Wah Cheng, Wai-Ching Lam, Ran Tian, Chen Zhao, Tai-Xiang Wu, Hong-Cai Shang, Ai-Ping Lyu and Zhao-Xiang Bian

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:192

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Most researchers in Uzbekistan prefer to publish their reports in journals of their home country. Moreover, the proportion of healthcare practitioners who prefer to use these national sources of information al...

    Authors: Timur Aripov, Dilfuza Aniyozova and Irina Gorbunova

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:189

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Evaluating women’s satisfaction should reflect the entire maternity care experience (antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal). The Women’s Experience Maternity Care Scale (WEMCS) questionnaire enables this assess...

    Authors: L. Floris and C. de Labrusse

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:188

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. With declining response proportions in population-based research the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of measures aimed at improving response increases. We investigated whether an additional flyer wi...

    Authors: Stefan Rach, Kathrin Günther and Birte Hadeler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:187

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Population estimates of alcohol consumption vary widely among samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. Some of this difference may relate to non-representative sampling. In so...

    Authors: KS Kylie Lee, Michelle S. Fitts, James H. Conigrave, Catherine Zheng, Jimmy Perry, Scott Wilson, Dudley Ah Chee, Shane Bond, Keith Weetra, Tanya N. Chikritzhs, Tim Slade and Katherine M. Conigrave

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:183

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in December 2019, a substantial body of COVID-19 medical literature has been generated. As of June 2020, gaps and longitudinal trends in the COVID-19 medical litera...

    Authors: Nan Liu, Marcel Lucas Chee, Chenglin Niu, Pin Pin Pek, Fahad Javaid Siddiqui, John Pastor Ansah, David Bruce Matchar, Sean Shao Wei Lam, Hairil Rizal Abdullah, Angelique Chan, Rahul Malhotra, Nicholas Graves, Mariko Siyue Koh, Sungwon Yoon, Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Daniel Shu Wei Ting…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:177

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Text messaging systems are used to collect data on symptom prevalence. Using a text messaging system, we evaluated the effects of question load, question frequency, and financial incentive on response rates an...

    Authors: Ryan Rego, Samuel Watson, Philbert Ishengoma, Philemon Langat, Hezekiah Pireh Otieno and Richard Lilford

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:174

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. The research community reacted rapidly to the emergence of COVID-19. We aimed to assess characteristics of journal articles, preprint articles, and registered trial protocols about COVID-19 and its causal agen...

    Authors: Mahir Fidahic, Danijela Nujic, Renata Runjic, Marta Civljak, Filipa Markotic, Zvjezdana Lovric Makaric and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:161

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Clinical practice guidelines have become increasingly widely used to guide quality improvement of clinical practice. Qualitative research may be a useful way to improve the quality and implementation of guidel...

    Authors: Yun-Yun Wang, Dan-Dan Liang, Cui Lu, Yue-Xian Shi, Jing Zhang, Yue Cao, Cheng Fang, Di Huang and Ying-Hui Jin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:160

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using multiple technologies to recruit and conduct cognitive interviews among young people across the United States to test items measuring sexual and reproductive empower...

    Authors: Ushma D. Upadhyay and Heather Lipkovich

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:159

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  32. A proper application of the Delphi technique is essential for obtaining valid research results. Medical researchers regularly use Delphi studies, but reports often lack detailed information on methodology and ...

    Authors: Rebekka Veugelers, Menno I. Gaakeer, Peter Patka and Robbert Huijsman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:156

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. It is important to evaluate fidelity of delivery and engagement during feasibility trials. However, there is little guidance on how to systematically develop strategies to improve implementation if problems ar...

    Authors: Holly Walton, Aimee Spector, Anna Roberts, Morgan Williamson, Jem Bhatt, Ildiko Tombor and Susan Michie

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:153

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Evidence on the effectiveness of postal recruitment methods for Indigenous peoples is lacking. Mayi Kuwayu, the National Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Wellbeing, uses multi-staged sampling. We...

    Authors: Alyson Wright, Katherine Ann Thurber, Mandy Yap, Wei Du, Emily Banks, Jennie Walker, Faye Irwin, Will Sanders and Raymond Lovett

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:149

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Missing data is a common problem in epidemiological studies, while it becomes more critical, when the missing data concern a multi-item instrument, since lack of information in even one of its items, leads to the...

    Authors: Thomas Tsiampalis and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:148

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. We investigated the feasibility of using a machine learning tool’s relevance predictions to expedite title and abstract screening.

    Authors: Allison Gates, Michelle Gates, Meghan Sebastianski, Samantha Guitard, Sarah A. Elliott and Lisa Hartling

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:139

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. When conducting an Overviews of Reviews on health-related topics, it is unclear which combination of bibliographic databases authors should use for searching for SRs. Our goal was to determine which databases ...

    Authors: Käthe Goossen, Simone Hess, Carole Lunny and Dawid Pieper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:138

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Publication and related biases (including publication bias, time-lag bias, outcome reporting bias and p-hacking) have been well documented in clinical research, but relatively little is known about their prese...

    Authors: Abimbola A. Ayorinde, Iestyn Williams, Russell Mannion, Fujian Song, Magdalena Skrybant, Richard J. Lilford and Yen-Fu Chen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:137

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Missing data in covariates can result in biased estimates and loss of power to detect associations. It can also lead to other challenges in time-to-event analyses including the handling of time-varying effects...

    Authors: Orlagh U. Carroll, Tim P. Morris and Ruth H. Keogh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:134

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

  40. Too often, studies of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in preventive, community, and health care are not sufficiently useful to end users (typically practitioners, patients, policymakers, or other researche...

    Authors: Henna Hasson, Laura Leviton and Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:133

    Content type: Debate

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  41. Propensity scores are widely used to deal with confounding bias in medical research. An incorrectly specified propensity score model may lead to residual confounding bias; therefore it is essential to use diag...

    Authors: Emily Granger, Tim Watkins, Jamie C. Sergeant and Mark Lunt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:132

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Cross-cultural research with patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) assumes that the PROM in the target language will measure the same construct in the same way as the PROM in the source language. Yet tran...

    Authors: Melanie Hawkins, Christina Cheng, Gerald R. Elsworth and Richard H. Osborne

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:130

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Evidence-based health care is informed by results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and their syntheses in meta-analyses. When the trial outcomes measured are not clearly described in trial publications, kn...

    Authors: Andrea Monsour, Emma J. Mew, Sagar Patel, Alyssandra Chee-a-tow, Leena Saeed, Lucia Santos, Darren B. Courtney, Priya N. Watson, Suneeta Monga, Peter Szatmari, Martin Offringa and Nancy J. Butcher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:129

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Recent changes in communication technologies, including increased reliance on mobile phones and the internet, may present challenges and/or opportunities to re-engaging inactive study cohorts. We evaluate our ...

    Authors: Gareth Lingham, David A. Mackey, Nicola Seed, Lisa Ryan, Elizabeth Milne, Robyn M. Lucas, Maria Franchina, Samantha Sze-Yee Lee and Seyhan Yazar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:127

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Peer review is at the heart of the scientific process. With the advent of digitisation, journals started to offer electronic articles or publishing online only. A new philosophy regarding the peer review proce...

    Authors: Oliver Rudolf HERBER, Caroline BRADBURY-JONES, Susanna BÖLING, Sarah COMBES, Julian HIRT, Yvonne KOOP, Ragnhild NYHAGEN, Jessica D. VELDHUIZEN and Julie TAYLOR

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:122

    Content type: Research article

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  46. A crucial element in the systematic review (SR) methodology is the appraisal of included primary studies, using tools for assessment of methodological quality or risk of bias (RoB). SR authors can conduct sens...

    Authors: Marija Franka Marušić, Mahir Fidahić, Cristina Mihaela Cepeha, Loredana Gabriela Farcaș, Alexandra Tseke and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:121

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved into one of the most impactful health crises in modern history, compelling researchers to explore innovative ways to efficiently collect public health data in a timely manner....

    Authors: Shahmir H. Ali, Joshua Foreman, Ariadna Capasso, Abbey M. Jones, Yesim Tozan and Ralph J. DiClemente

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:116

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. While randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide high-quality evidence to guide practice, much routine care is not based upon available RCTs. This disconnect between evidence and practice is not sufficiently ...

    Authors: Ben E. Byrne, Leila Rooshenas, Helen S. Lambert and Jane M. Blazeby

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:112

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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