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Data collection, quality, and reporting

Section edited by Livia Puljak

This section considers manuscripts that assess quality aspects of data collected in all types of medical research studies, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, along with how the data are reported in published form.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    A large number of articles examined the preventability rate of readmissions, but comparison and interpretability of these preventability rates is complicated due to the large heterogeneity of methods that were...

    Authors: Eva-Linda Kneepkens, Corline Brouwers, Richelle Glory Singotani, Martine C. de Bruijne and Fatma Karapinar-Çarkit

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:128

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to explore the utility of the Mechanical Turk (MTurk) crowdsourcing platform to conduct rapid trials evaluating online interventions for unhealthy alcohol...

    Authors: John A. Cunningham, Alexandra Godinho and Nicolas Bertholet

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:124

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Small group research in healthcare is important because it deals with interaction and decision-making processes that can help to identify and improve safer patient treatment and care. However, the number of st...

    Authors: Lisa Aufegger, Colin Bicknell, Emma Soane, Hutan Ashrafian and Ara Darzi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:121

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Health researchers often use survey studies to examine associations between risk factors at one time point and health outcomes later in life. Previous studies have shown that missing not at random (MNAR) may p...

    Authors: Kristin Gustavson, Espen Røysamb and Ingrid Borren

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:120

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  5. Content type: Research article

    We determined whether it is feasible to identify important changes in care management resulting from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients who activate the primary percutaneous coronary intervent...

    Authors: Maria Pufulete, Jessica Harris, Stephen Dorman, Lynn Cook, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, John Greenwood, Richard Anderson, Rachel Brierley and Barnaby C. Reeves

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:116

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Qualitative evidence synthesis is increasingly used alongside reviews of effectiveness to inform guidelines and other decisions. To support this use, the GRADE-CERQual approach was developed to assess and comm...

    Authors: Heather Menzies Munthe-Kaas, Claire Glenton, Andrew Booth, Jane Noyes and Simon Lewin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:113

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  7. Content type: Research article

    From 2005 to 2010, we conducted 2 randomized studies on a journal (Medicina Clínica), where we took manuscripts received for publication and randomly assigned them to either the standard editorial process or t...

    Authors: Marta Vilaró, Jordi Cortés, Albert Selva-O’Callaghan, Agustín Urrutia, Josep-Maria Ribera, Francesc Cardellach, Xavier Basagaña, Matthew Elmore, Miquel Vilardell, Douglas Altman, José-Antonio González and Erik Cobo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:112

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  8. Content type: Research article

    In this paper we discuss the emergence of many different methods for doing a literature review. Referring back to the early days, when there were essentially two types of review; a Cochrane systematic review a...

    Authors: Helen Aveyard and Caroline Bradbury-Jones

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:105

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Most clinical trials with time-to-event primary outcomes are designed assuming constant event rates and proportional hazards over time. Non-constant event rates and non-proportional hazards are seen increasing...

    Authors: Kim Jachno, Stephane Heritier and Rory Wolfe

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:103

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Large and complex studies are now routine, and quality assurance and quality control (QC) procedures ensure reliable results and conclusions. Standard procedures may comprise manual verification and double ent...

    Authors: Kelly M. Sunderland, Derek Beaton, Julia Fraser, Donna Kwan, Paula M. McLaughlin, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Alicia J. Peltsch, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Demetrios J. Sahlas, Richard H. Swartz, Stephen C. Strother and Malcolm A. Binns

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:102

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  11. Content type: Research article

    A dataset is indispensable to answer the research questions of clinical research studies. Inaccurate data lead to ambiguous results, and the removal of errors results in increased cost. The aim of this Quality...

    Authors: Naila A. Shaheen, Bipin Manezhi, Abin Thomas and Mohammed AlKelya

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:98

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Poor medication adherence is a major factor in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and contributes to increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. Interventions for improving medication adh...

    Authors: A. Sieben, S. J. H. Bredie, J. C. H. B. M. Luijten, C. J. H. M. van Laarhoven, S. van Dulmen and H. A. W. van Onzenoort

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:95

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  13. Content type: Database

    To study patient physiology throughout a period of acute hospitalization, we sought to create accessible, standardized nationwide data at the level of the individual patient-facility-day. This methodology pape...

    Authors: Xiao Qing Wang, Brenda M. Vincent, Wyndy L. Wiitala, Kaitlyn A. Luginbill, Elizabeth M. Viglianti, Hallie C. Prescott and Theodore J. Iwashyna

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:94

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  14. Content type: Research article

    This study examined the agreement between patient-reported chronic diseases and hospital administrative records in hip or knee arthroplasty patients in England.

    Authors: Bélène Podmore, Andrew Hutchings, Sujith Konan and Jan van der Meulen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:87

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Measuring body mass index (BMI) has been proposed as a method of screening for preventive primary care and population surveillance of childhood obesity. However, the accuracy of routinely collected measurement...

    Authors: Sarah Carsley, Patricia C. Parkin, Karen Tu, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Nav Persaud, Jonathon L. Maguire and Catherine S. Birken

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:84

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Maternal and child health are internationally considered to be among the best measures for assessing health-care quality. The study was carried out with the following aims: 1) to assess the quality of perinata...

    Authors: Claudia Pileggi, Lorena Squillace, Mariavalentina Giordano, Rosa Papadopoli, Aida Bianco and Maria Pavia

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:83

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  17. Content type: Research article

    There have been calls for greater consideration of applicability and transferability in systematic reviews, to improve their usefulness in informing policy and practice. Understanding how evidence is, or is no...

    Authors: Susan Baxter, Maxine Johnson, Duncan Chambers, Anthea Sutton, Elizabeth Goyder and Andrew Booth

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:80

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  18. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the prevalence of protocol registration (or development) among published dose-response meta-analyses (DRMAs), and whether DRMAs with a protocol are better than those not.

    Authors: Chang Xu, Liang-Liang Cheng, Yu Liu, Peng-Li Jia, Ming-Yue Gao and Chao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:78

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Clinical decisions are made based on Cochrane reviews, but the implementation of results of evidence syntheses such as Cochrane reviews is problematic if the evidence is not prepared consistently. All systemat...

    Authors: Andrija Babic, Andela Pijuk, Lucie Brázdilová, Yuliyana Georgieva, Marco António Raposo Pereira, Tina Poklepovic Pericic and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:77

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Accelerometers are widely used to measure sedentary time and daily physical activity (PA). However, data collection and processing criteria, such as non-wear time rules might affect the assessment of total PA ...

    Authors: Jérémy Vanhelst, Florian Vidal, Elodie Drumez, Laurent Béghin, Jean-Benoît Baudelet, Stéphanie Coopman and Frédéric Gottrand

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:72

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Rare diseases are a global public health priority. Though each disease is rare, when taken together the thousands of known rare diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, impact quality of life, and c...

    Authors: Menaka Pai, Cindy H. T. Yeung, Elie A. Akl, Andrea Darzi, Christopher Hillis, Kimberly Legault, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Nancy Santesso, Domenica Taruscio, Madeleine Verhovsek, Holger J. Schünemann and Alfonso Iorio

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:67

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Navigating the world of qualitative thematic analysis can be challenging. This is compounded by the fact that detailed descriptions of methods are often omitted from qualitative discussions. While qualitative ...

    Authors: Kate Roberts, Anthony Dowell and Jing-Bao Nie

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:66

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Continuity of cardiac care after hospital discharge is a priority, especially as healthcare systems become increasingly complex and fragmented. There are few available instruments to measure continuity of card...

    Authors: Irene Valaker, Bengt Fridlund, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Heather Hadjistavropoulos, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Svein Rotevatn, Maj-Britt Råholm and Tone M. Norekvål

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:62

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Interviewers can substantially affect self-reported data. This may be due to random variation in interviewers’ ability to put respondents at ease or in how they frame questions. It may also be due to systemati...

    Authors: Guy Harling, Michael M. Chanda, Katrina F. Ortblad, Magdalene Mwale, Steven Chongo, Catherine Kanchele, Nyambe Kamungoma, Leah G. Barresi, Till Bärnighausen and Catherine E. Oldenburg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:60

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Evaluation of complex interventions should include a process evaluation to give evaluators, researchers, and policy makers greater confidence in the outcomes reported from RCTs. Implementation fidelity can be ...

    Authors: Line Kildal Bragstad, Berit Arnesveen Bronken, Unni Sveen, Ellen Gabrielsen Hjelle, Gabriele Kitzmüller, Randi Martinsen, Kari J. Kvigne, Margrete Mangset and Marit Kirkevold

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:59

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The availability of clinical and therapeutic data drawn from medical records and administrative databases has entailed new opportunities for clinical and epidemiologic research. However, these databases presen...

    Authors: Guillermo Prada-Ramallal, Bahi Takkouche and Adolfo Figueiras

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:53

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI) is a single-item measure of functional decline, it is widely used in Europe but it has never been validated in an Asian population. The aim of this study was to ...

    Authors: Ru-Ling Hsiao, Chih-Hsun Wu, Che-Wei Hsu, Yasuhiko Saito and Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:52

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  28. Content type: Research article

    A strong need exists for a validated tool that clearly defines peer review report quality in biomedical research, as it will allow evaluating interventions aimed at improving the peer review process in well-pe...

    Authors: Cecilia Superchi, José Antonio González, Ivan Solà, Erik Cobo, Darko Hren and Isabelle Boutron

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:48

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Studies find that identifying additional study data is possible by contacting study authors or experts. What is less certain is the time taken, costs involved and value found by using this supplementary search...

    Authors: Chris Cooper, Juan Talens Bou and Jo Varley-Campbell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:45

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Quality of life (QoL) is an established outcome measure of substance use disorder treatment. The WHOQOL-BREF is the gold standard tool, but its appropriateness for particularly vulnerable patient populations m...

    Authors: Ashley Elizabeth Muller, Svetlana Skurtveit and Thomas Clausen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:44

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  31. Content type: Research article

    This systematic review examined the methodological quality of studies and assessed the psychometric qualities of interview-administered Past-week and Usual-week Physical Activity Questionnaires (PAQs). Pubmed ...

    Authors: Kenji Doma, Renée Speyer, Lauren Alese Parsons and Reinie Cordier

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:43

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Recruitment and retention are two significant barriers in research, particularly for historically underrepresented groups, including racial and ethnic minorities, patients who are low-income, or people with su...

    Authors: Beatrice Huang, Denise De Vore, Chris Chirinos, Jessica Wolf, Devon Low, Rachel Willard-Grace, Stephanie Tsao, Chris Garvey, Doranne Donesky, George Su and David H. Thom

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:39

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Decision making in health and social care requires robust syntheses of both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Meta-ethnography is a seven-phase methodology for synthesising qualitative studies. Developed ...

    Authors: Emma F. France, Isabelle Uny, Nicola Ring, Ruth L. Turley, Margaret Maxwell, Edward A. S. Duncan, Ruth G. Jepson, Rachel J. Roberts and Jane Noyes

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:35

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Public and patient involvement is a routine element of health services research methods to produce better designed and reported studies. Although co-production is recommended when involving people in research,...

    Authors: Bridie Angela Evans, Alison Porter, Helen Snooks and Vanessa Burholt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:34

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Reporting quality of systematic reviews’ (SRs) abstracts is important because this is often the only information about a study that readers have. The aim of this study was to assess adherence of SR abstracts i...

    Authors: Katarina Maticic, Marina Krnic Martinic and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:32

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Spiritual care is defined as recognizing and responding to the needs of the human spirit when the individual is facing trauma, illness, or sadness. Providing spiritual care is one of the core aspects of holist...

    Authors: Yanli Hu, Lay Hwa Tiew and Fan Li

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:21

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Patient reported outcomes are increasingly used to assess the success of surgical procedures. Patient reported complications are often included as an outcome. However, these data must be validated to be accura...

    Authors: Sung Mu Heo, Justine M. Naylor, Ian A. Harris and Timothy R. Churches

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:15

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are a pragmatic trial design, providing an unprecedented opportunity to increase the robustness of evidence underpinning implementation and quality improvement...

    Authors: Caroline A. Kristunas, Karla Hemming, Helen Eborall, Sandra Eldridge and Laura J. Gray

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:12

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  39. Content type: Debate

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are generally regarded as the “gold standard” for providing quantifiable evidence around the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new healthcare technologies. In order to...

    Authors: Matthew Franklin and Joanna Thorn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:8

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  40. Content type: Research article

    The Norwegian Tonsil Surgery Register (NTSR) was launched in January 2017. The purpose of the register is to present data on tonsil surgery to facilitate improvements in patient care. Data used for evaluating ...

    Authors: Siri Wennberg, Lasse A. Karlsen, Joacim Stalfors, Mette Bratt and Vegard Bugten

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:6

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Exploring factors associated with retention in randomised trials provides insight into potential threats to internal and external study validity, and may inform the development of interventions to increase ret...

    Authors: Alexandra P. Metse, Nur Ashikin Noor Hizam, John Wiggers, Paula Wye and Jenny A. Bowman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:177

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the quality of data sources used to study cough and cold medication (CCM) safety in children via the Pediatric Cough and Cold Safety Surveillance System.

    Authors: Jody L. Green, Kate M. Reynolds, William Banner, G. Randall Bond, Ralph E. Kauffman, Robert B. Palmer, Ian M. Paul and Richard C. Dart

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:175

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of scientific evidence, but successful participant recruitment is critical to ensure the external and internal validity of results. This study desc...

    Authors: Rachel L. Duckham, Jamie L. Tait, Caryl A. Nowson, Kerrie M. Sanders, Dennis R. Taaffe, Keith D. Hill and Robin M. Daly

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:173

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Clinical trials are an essential part of evidence-based medicine. Hence, to ensure transparency and accountability in these clinical trials, policies for registration have been framed with emphasis on mandator...

    Authors: Victoria J. Serpas, Kanwal P. Raghav, Daniel M. Halperin, James Yao and Michael J. Overman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:169

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  45. Content type: Study protocol

    Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) is an important cause of disability and economic cost worldwide. There is a need for effective preventative and management strategies. Emerging studies measure a variety of outcomes re...

    Authors: Francesca Wuytack, Annelie Gutke, Britt Stuge, Siv Mørkved, Christina Olsson, Hilde Stendal Robinson, Nina K. Vøllestad, Birgitta Öberg, Lena Nilsson Wikmar, Juan Jose Saldaña Mena and Valerie Smith

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:158

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  46. Content type: Research article

    A number of conceptual frameworks for patient and public involvement (PPI) in research have been published in recent years. Although some are based on empirical research and/or existing theory, in many cases t...

    Authors: David Evans, Noreen Hopewell-Kelly, Michele Kok and Jo White

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:116

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Research waste is estimated to be very common, but assessments of its prevalence and scope are rare. As an example, we assessed research waste in clinical research on calcium intake (assessing study design and...

    Authors: Mark J. Bolland, Alison Avenell and Andrew Grey

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:103

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Research waste can occur when trials are conducted in the wrong populations. Vitamin D deficient populations are most likely to benefit from vitamin D supplementation. We investigated waste attributable to ran...

    Authors: Mark J. Bolland, Andrew Grey and Alison Avenell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:101

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  49. Content type: Research article

    We are witnessing an exponential increase in the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported from mainland China. The increase is particularly notable in the field of new generation antidepressants ...

    Authors: Zheng Tong, Fangzhou Li, Yusuke Ogawa, Norio Watanabe and Toshi A. Furukawa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:96

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