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Study design

Section edited by Demosthenes Panagiotakos

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how choices of research methodology and study design can impact study results, including research participation and study outcomes.

Page 1 of 8
  1. Content type: Research article

    Attrition occurs when a participant fails to respond to one or more study waves. The accumulation of attrition over several waves can lower the sample size and power and create a final sample that could differ...

    Authors: Samantha Spiers, Evrim Oral, Elizabeth T. H. Fontham, Edward S. Peters, James L. Mohler, Jeannette T. Bensen and Christine S. Brennan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:60

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Realist approaches seek to answer questions such as ‘how?’, ‘why?’, ‘for whom?’, ‘in what circumstances?’ and ‘to what extent?’ interventions ‘work’ using context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations. Quanti...

    Authors: John A. Ford, Andy Jones, Geoff Wong, Allan Clark, Tom Porter and Nick Steel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:57

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Rapid response in health technology assessment is a synthesis of the best available evidence prepared in a timely manner to meet specific demands. We build a consensus among Brazilian specialists in health tec...

    Authors: Marcus Tolentino Silva, Everton Nunes da Silva and Jorge Otávio Maia Barreto

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:51

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The successful initiation of people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa has engendered challenges of poor retention in care and suboptimal adherence to medication. The adherenc...

    Authors: Ferdinand C. Mukumbang, Bruno Marchal, Sara Van Belle and Brian van Wyk

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:47

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  5. Content type: Research article

    List randomization (LR), a survey method intended to mitigate biases related to sensitive true/false questions, has received recent attention from researchers. However, tests of its validity are limited, with ...

    Authors: Noah Haber, Guy Harling, Jessica Cohen, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Frank Tanser, Dickman Gareta, Kobus Herbst, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen and Günther Fink

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:46

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies are frequently performed, but no widely accepted guidance is available at present. We performed a systematic scoping review of published methodolog...

    Authors: Monika Mueller, Maddalena D’Addario, Matthias Egger, Myriam Cevallos, Olaf Dekkers, Catrina Mugglin and Pippa Scott

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:44

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    Hybrid research designs targeting adults with neurologic disability are critical for improving the efficiency of models that can identify, track and intervene on identified health issues.

    Authors: James H. Rimmer, Cassandra Herman, Brooks Wingo, Kevin Fontaine and Tapan Mehta

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:28

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided...

    Authors: Michael Pearce, Siew Wan Hee, Jason Madan, Martin Posch, Simon Day, Frank Miller, Sarah Zohar and Nigel Stallard

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:20

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Video vignettes are used to test the effects of physicians’ communication on patient outcomes. Methodological choices in video-vignette development may have far-stretching consequences for participants’ engage...

    Authors: Leonie N. C. Visser, Nadine Bol, Marij A. Hillen, Mathilde G. E. Verdam, Hanneke C. J. M. de Haes, Julia C. M. van Weert and Ellen M. A. Smets

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:15

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  10. Content type: Research article

    While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs) in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such comp...

    Authors: Soyeon Cheon, Hi-Joon Park, Younbyoung Chae and Hyangsook Lee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:13

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  11. Content type: Correspondence

    Systematic reviews have been considered as the pillar on which evidence-based healthcare rests. Systematic review methodology has evolved and been modified over the years to accommodate the range of questions ...

    Authors: Zachary Munn, Cindy Stern, Edoardo Aromataris, Craig Lockwood and Zoe Jordan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:5

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Improving participation rates in epidemiologic studies using questionnaires and biological sampling is important for the generalizability of the outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pre...

    Authors: Marie Koitsalu, Martin Eklund, Jan Adolfsson, Henrik Grönberg and Yvonne Brandberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:3

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Overuse of antibiotics contributes to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic stewardship interventions address this threat by reducing the use of antibiotics in occasions or doses unlikely t...

    Authors: Patricia J. Lucas, Jenny Ingram, Niamh M. Redmond, Christie Cabral, Sophie L. Turnbull and Alastair D. Hay

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:175

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  14. Content type: Technical advance

    Randomization is considered to be a key feature to protect against bias in randomized clinical trials. Randomization induces comparability with respect to known and unknown covariates, mitigates selection bias...

    Authors: Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Diane Uschner, William F. Rosenberger and Nicole Heussen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:159

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  15. Content type: Research article

    There are detailed reviews about different recruitment strategies, but not with regard to differences between recruitment of hospital-based versus office-based physicians. Within this study, the two different ...

    Authors: S. R. Zeissig, V. Weyer-Elberich, K. Emrich, H. Binder, S. Fischbeck, B. H. Imruck, P. Friedrich-Mai, M. E. Beutel and M. Blettner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:150

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Several statistical approaches have been proposed to assess and correct for exposure measurement error. We aimed to provide a critical overview of the most common approaches used in nutritional epidemiology.

    Authors: Derrick A. Bennett, Denise Landry, Julian Little and Cosetta Minelli

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:146

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The clinical research enterprise is not producing the evidence decision makers arguably need in a timely and cost effective manner; research currently involves the use of labor-intensive parallel systems that ...

    Authors: Kevin P. Weinfurt, Adrian F. Hernandez, Gloria D. Coronado, Lynn L. DeBar, Laura M. Dember, Beverly B. Green, Patrick J. Heagerty, Susan S. Huang, Kathryn T. James, Jeffrey G. Jarvik, Eric B. Larson, Vincent Mor, Richard Platt, Gary E. Rosenthal, Edward J. Septimus, Gregory E. Simon…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:144

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  18. Content type: Correspondence

    Focused ethnography is an applied and pragmatic form of ethnography that explores a specific social phenomenon as it occurs in everyday life. Based on the literature a problem-focused research question is form...

    Authors: A.P. Bikker, H. Atherton, H. Brant, T. Porqueddu, J.L. Campbell, A. Gibson, B. McKinstry, C. Salisbury and S. Ziebland

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:139

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Knowing about predictors of attrition in a panel is important to initiate early measures against loss of participants. We investigated attrition in both early and late phase of an online panel with special foc...

    Authors: Nicole Rübsamen, Manas K. Akmatov, Stefanie Castell, André Karch and Rafael T. Mikolajczyk

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:132

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The Barthel Index (BI) is a measure of independence in activities of daily living (ADL). In the modified Barthel Index (MBI), a five-point system replaced the original two or three or four point rating system....

    Authors: Tomoko Ohura, Kimitaka Hase, Yoshie Nakajima and Takeo Nakayama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:131

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