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Study design

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how choices of research methodology and study design can impact study results, including research participation and study outcomes.

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  1. There is evidence that the physician response rate is declining. In response to this, methods for increasing the physician response rate are currently being explored. This paper examines the response rate and ...

    Authors: Lesley Weaver, Timothy J. Beebe and Todd Rockwood

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:73

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Surveys are established methods for collecting population data that are unavailable from other sources; however, response rates to surveys are declining. A number of methods have been identified to increase su...

    Authors: Siân Harrison, Jane Henderson, Fiona Alderdice and Maria A. Quigley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:65

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Our work was motivated by the need to, given serum availability and/or financial resources, decide on which samples to test in a serum bank for different pathogens. Simulation-based sample size calculations we...

    Authors: Stéphanie Blaizot, Sereina A. Herzog, Steven Abrams, Heidi Theeten, Amber Litzroth and Niel Hens

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:51

    Content type: Research article

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  4. EHR phenotyping offers the ability to rapidly assemble a precisely defined cohort of patients prescreened for eligibility to participate in health-related research. Even so, stakeholders in the process must st...

    Authors: Laura M. Beskow, Kathleen M. Brelsford and Catherine M. Hammack

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:42

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Precarious status migrants are a group of persons who are vulnerable, heterogeneous, and often suspicious of research teams. They are underrepresented in population-based research projects, and strategies to r...

    Authors: Margaux Fête, Josephine Aho, Magalie Benoit, Patrick Cloos and Valéry Ridde

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:41

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Looked after children and care leavers have an increased risk of drug and alcohol use compared to their non-LAC peers. Despite high prevalence rates within this population, looked after children are reported t...

    Authors: Hayley Alderson, Rebecca Brown, Alex Copello, Eileen Kaner, Gillian Tober, Raghu Lingam and Ruth McGovern

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The aim of the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey was to assess nutritional intake, health status and various behaviors in a representative sample of the Greek population.

    Authors: Emmanuella Magriplis, Ioannis Dimakopoulos, Dimitra Karageorgou, Anastasia-Vasiliki Mitsopoulou, Ioanna Bakogianni, Renata Micha, George Michas, Triantafyllia Ntouroupi, Sophia-Maria Tsaniklidou, Kostantina Argyri, George Danezis, Constantinos Georgiou, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos and Antonis Zampelas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:37

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Self-management support programmes are effective in a range of chronic conditions however there is limited evidence for their use in the treatment of chronic headaches. The aim of this study was to test the fe...

    Authors: Kimberley White, Rachel Potter, Shilpa Patel, Vivien P. Nichols, Kirstie L. Haywood, Siew Wan Hee, Dipesh Mistry, Dawn Carnes, Stephanie J. C. Taylor, Martin Underwood and Manjit S. Matharu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:30

    Content type: Research article

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  9. It is challenging to manage data collection as planned and creation of opportunities to adapt during the course of enrolment may be needed. This paper aims to summarize the different sampling strategies adopte...

    Authors: Ala’a Alkerwi, Jessica Pastore, Nicolas Sauvageot, Gwenaëlle Le Coroller, Valéry Bocquet, Marylène d’Incau, Gloria Aguayo, Brice Appenzeller, Dritan Bejko, Torsten Bohn, Laurent Malisoux, Sophie Couffignal, Stephanie Noppe, Charles Delagardelle, Jean Beissel, Anna Chioti…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:27

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Recruitment to clinical trials can be challenging. Methods that improve the efficiency of trial recruitment are needed to increase successful study completions. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether s...

    Authors: Amy Rogers, Robert W. V. Flynn, Isla S. Mackenzie and Thomas M. MacDonald

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:24

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a model-based design for phase I trials, which aims to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a new therapy. The CRM has been shown to be more accurate in targeting...

    Authors: Graham M. Wheeler, Adrian P. Mander, Alun Bedding, Kristian Brock, Victoria Cornelius, Andrew P. Grieve, Thomas Jaki, Sharon B. Love, Lang’o Odondi, Christopher J. Weir, Christina Yap and Simon J. Bond

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:18

    Content type: Technical advance

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  12. Data are limited regarding how to effectively and efficiently identify patient priorities for research or clinical care. Our goal was to compare the comprehensiveness and efficiency of group concept mapping (G...

    Authors: Kristin L. Rising, Marianna LaNoue, Alexzandra T. Gentsch, Amanda M. B. Doty, Amy Cunningham, Brendan G. Carr, Judd E. Hollander, Lori Latimer, Larry Loebell, Gail Weingarten, Neva White and Geoffrey Mills

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:7

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Studies elucidating health-related information and special needs of Syrian migrants living in Germany are urgently required. However, data is scarce and finding appropriate sampling strategies to obtain repres...

    Authors: Tobias Weinmann, Amal AlZahmi, Andreas Schneck, Julian Felipe Mancera Charry, Günter Fröschl and Katja Radon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:5

    Content type: Research article

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  14. In a randomised controlled trial, contamination is defined as the receipt of active intervention amongst participants in the control arm. This review assessed the processes leading to contamination, its typica...

    Authors: Nicholas Magill, Ruth Knight, Paul McCrone, Khalida Ismail and Sabine Landau

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:4

    Content type: Research article

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  15. There are significant challenges to the successful conduct of non-inferiority trials because they require large numbers to demonstrate that an alternative intervention is “not too much worse” than the standard...

    Authors: Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Reshma Jagsi, Jinani Jayasekera, Natasha K. Stout, Sandra A. Mitchell and Eric J. Feuer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:3

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Although in recent years there has been a strong increase in published research on theories (e.g. realist evaluation, normalization process theory) driving and guiding process evaluations of complex interventi...

    Authors: P. Masterson-Algar, C. R. Burton and J. Rycroft-Malone

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:180

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Workplace health interventions incorporating qualitative and quantitative components (mixed methods) within a Participatory Action Research approach can increase understanding of contextual issues ensuring rea...

    Authors: Marguerite C. Sendall, Laura K. McCosker, Alison Brodie, Melissa Hill and Phil Crane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:167

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In Sweden, human tissue samples obtained from diagnostic and surgical procedures have for decades been routinely stored in a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, form. Through linkage with nationwide registers, ...

    Authors: Jessica Carlsson, Sabina Davidsson, Jonna Fridfeldt, Francesca Giunchi, Valentina Fiano, Chiara Grasso, Renata Zelic, Lorenzo Richiardi, Ove Andrén, Andreas Pettersson, Michelangelo Fiorentino and Olof Akre

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:161

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is a research approach in which knowledge users (KUs) co-produce research. The rationale for IKT is that it leads to research that is more relevant and useful to KUs, the...

    Authors: Mary Ann O’Brien, Andrea Carson, Lisa Barbera, Melissa C. Brouwers, Craig C. Earle, Ian D. Graham, Nicole Mittmann and Eva Grunfeld

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:150

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Conducting prospective epidemiological studies of hospitalized patients with rare diseases like primary subarachnoid hemorrhage (pSAH) are difficult due to time and budgetary constraints. Routinely collected a...

    Authors: S. W. English, L. McIntyre, V. Saigle, M. Chassé, D. A. Fergusson, A. F. Turgeon, F. Lauzier, D. Griesdale, A. Garland, R. Zarychanski, A. Algird and C. van Walraven

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:94

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCT) typically exclude certain patient subgroups, thereby potentially jeopardizing estimation of a drug’s effects when prescribed to wider populations and under routine ...

    Authors: Helene Karcher, Shuai Fu, Jie Meng, Mikkel Zöllner Ankarfeldt, Orestis Efthimiou, Mark Belger, Josep Maria Haro, Lucien Abenhaim and Clementine Nordon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:75

    Content type: Technical advance

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  22. Attrition occurs when a participant fails to respond to one or more study waves. The accumulation of attrition over several waves can lower the sample size and power and create a final sample that could differ...

    Authors: Samantha Spiers, Evrim Oral, Elizabeth T. H. Fontham, Edward S. Peters, James L. Mohler, Jeannette T. Bensen and Christine S. Brennan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:60

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Realist approaches seek to answer questions such as ‘how?’, ‘why?’, ‘for whom?’, ‘in what circumstances?’ and ‘to what extent?’ interventions ‘work’ using context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations. Quanti...

    Authors: John A. Ford, Andy Jones, Geoff Wong, Allan Clark, Tom Porter and Nick Steel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:57

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Rapid response in health technology assessment is a synthesis of the best available evidence prepared in a timely manner to meet specific demands. We build a consensus among Brazilian specialists in health tec...

    Authors: Marcus Tolentino Silva, Everton Nunes da Silva and Jorge Otávio Maia Barreto

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:51

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The successful initiation of people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa has engendered challenges of poor retention in care and suboptimal adherence to medication. The adherenc...

    Authors: Ferdinand C. Mukumbang, Bruno Marchal, Sara Van Belle and Brian van Wyk

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:47

    Content type: Research article

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  26. List randomization (LR), a survey method intended to mitigate biases related to sensitive true/false questions, has received recent attention from researchers. However, tests of its validity are limited, with ...

    Authors: Noah Haber, Guy Harling, Jessica Cohen, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Frank Tanser, Dickman Gareta, Kobus Herbst, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen and Günther Fink

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:46

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies are frequently performed, but no widely accepted guidance is available at present. We performed a systematic scoping review of published methodolog...

    Authors: Monika Mueller, Maddalena D’Addario, Matthias Egger, Myriam Cevallos, Olaf Dekkers, Catrina Mugglin and Pippa Scott

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:44

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Hybrid research designs targeting adults with neurologic disability are critical for improving the efficiency of models that can identify, track and intervene on identified health issues.

    Authors: James H. Rimmer, Cassandra Herman, Brooks Wingo, Kevin Fontaine and Tapan Mehta

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided...

    Authors: Michael Pearce, Siew Wan Hee, Jason Madan, Martin Posch, Simon Day, Frank Miller, Sarah Zohar and Nigel Stallard

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:20

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Video vignettes are used to test the effects of physicians’ communication on patient outcomes. Methodological choices in video-vignette development may have far-stretching consequences for participants’ engage...

    Authors: Leonie N. C. Visser, Nadine Bol, Marij A. Hillen, Mathilde G. E. Verdam, Hanneke C. J. M. de Haes, Julia C. M. van Weert and Ellen M. A. Smets

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:15

    Content type: Research article

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  31. While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs) in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such comp...

    Authors: Soyeon Cheon, Hi-Joon Park, Younbyoung Chae and Hyangsook Lee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:13

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Systematic reviews have been considered as the pillar on which evidence-based healthcare rests. Systematic review methodology has evolved and been modified over the years to accommodate the range of questions ...

    Authors: Zachary Munn, Cindy Stern, Edoardo Aromataris, Craig Lockwood and Zoe Jordan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:5

    Content type: Correspondence

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  33. Improving participation rates in epidemiologic studies using questionnaires and biological sampling is important for the generalizability of the outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pre...

    Authors: Marie Koitsalu, Martin Eklund, Jan Adolfsson, Henrik Grönberg and Yvonne Brandberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:3

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Overuse of antibiotics contributes to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic stewardship interventions address this threat by reducing the use of antibiotics in occasions or doses unlikely t...

    Authors: Patricia J. Lucas, Jenny Ingram, Niamh M. Redmond, Christie Cabral, Sophie L. Turnbull and Alastair D. Hay

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:175

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Randomization is considered to be a key feature to protect against bias in randomized clinical trials. Randomization induces comparability with respect to known and unknown covariates, mitigates selection bias...

    Authors: Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Diane Uschner, William F. Rosenberger and Nicole Heussen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:159

    Content type: Technical advance

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  36. There are detailed reviews about different recruitment strategies, but not with regard to differences between recruitment of hospital-based versus office-based physicians. Within this study, the two different ...

    Authors: S. R. Zeissig, V. Weyer-Elberich, K. Emrich, H. Binder, S. Fischbeck, B. H. Imruck, P. Friedrich-Mai, M. E. Beutel and M. Blettner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:150

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Several statistical approaches have been proposed to assess and correct for exposure measurement error. We aimed to provide a critical overview of the most common approaches used in nutritional epidemiology.

    Authors: Derrick A. Bennett, Denise Landry, Julian Little and Cosetta Minelli

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:146

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The clinical research enterprise is not producing the evidence decision makers arguably need in a timely and cost effective manner; research currently involves the use of labor-intensive parallel systems that ...

    Authors: Kevin P. Weinfurt, Adrian F. Hernandez, Gloria D. Coronado, Lynn L. DeBar, Laura M. Dember, Beverly B. Green, Patrick J. Heagerty, Susan S. Huang, Kathryn T. James, Jeffrey G. Jarvik, Eric B. Larson, Vincent Mor, Richard Platt, Gary E. Rosenthal, Edward J. Septimus, Gregory E. Simon…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:144

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Focused ethnography is an applied and pragmatic form of ethnography that explores a specific social phenomenon as it occurs in everyday life. Based on the literature a problem-focused research question is form...

    Authors: A.P. Bikker, H. Atherton, H. Brant, T. Porqueddu, J.L. Campbell, A. Gibson, B. McKinstry, C. Salisbury and S. Ziebland

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:139

    Content type: Correspondence

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  40. Knowing about predictors of attrition in a panel is important to initiate early measures against loss of participants. We investigated attrition in both early and late phase of an online panel with special foc...

    Authors: Nicole Rübsamen, Manas K. Akmatov, Stefanie Castell, André Karch and Rafael T. Mikolajczyk

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:132

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The Barthel Index (BI) is a measure of independence in activities of daily living (ADL). In the modified Barthel Index (MBI), a five-point system replaced the original two or three or four point rating system....

    Authors: Tomoko Ohura, Kimitaka Hase, Yoshie Nakajima and Takeo Nakayama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:131

    Content type: Research article

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  42. This cohort study examined the impact of the lengths of lookback and confirmation periods as well as the definition of confirmatory events on the number of incident cancer cases identified and age-standardized...

    Authors: Jonas Czwikla, Kathrin Jobski and Tania Schink

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:122

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Each year over five million people develop chronic non-malignant pain and can experience healthcare as an adversarial struggle. The aims of this study were: (1) to bring together qualitative evidence syntheses...

    Authors: Fran Toye, Kate Seers, Erin Hannink and Karen Barker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:116

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. The Matchpoint trial aims to identify the optimal dose of ponatinib to give with conventional chemotherapy consisting of fludarabine, cytarabine and idarubicin to chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in blastic ...

    Authors: Kristian Brock, Lucinda Billingham, Mhairi Copland, Shamyla Siddique, Mirjana Sirovica and Christina Yap

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:112

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

  45. African Americans have been historically under-represented in genetic studies. More research is needed on effective recruitment strategies for this population, especially on approaches that supplement traditio...

    Authors: Rebecca Salowe, Laura O’Keefe, Sayaka Merriam, Roy Lee, Naira Khachatryan, Prithvi Sankar, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Amanda Lehman, Victoria Addis, Windell Murphy, Jeffrey Henderer, Maureen Maguire and Joan O’Brien

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:101

    Content type: Research article

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