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Study design

Section edited by Demosthenes Panagiotakos

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how choices of research methodology and study design can impact study results, including research participation and study outcomes.

Page 3 of 4

  1. Content type: Research article

    Vignettes are short stories about a hypothetical person, traditionally used within research (quantitative or qualitative) on sensitive topics in the developed world. Studies using vignettes in the developing w...

    Authors: Annabelle Gourlay, Gerry Mshana, Isolde Birdthistle, Grace Bulugu, Basia Zaba and Mark Urassa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 14:21

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Self-reported colorectal cancer (CRC) screening behavior is often subject to over-reporting bias. We examined how the inclusion of a future intention to screen item (viz. asking about future intentions to get scr...

    Authors: Timothy J Beebe, Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss, Sarah M Jenkins, Kandace A Lackore and Timothy P Johnson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 14:19

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle intervention can prevent progression to type 2 diabetes in high risk populations. We designed a randomised...

    Authors: Jennifer J Infanti, Angela O’Dea, Irene Gibson, Brian E McGuire, John Newell, Liam G Glynn, Ciaran O’Neill, Susan B Connolly and Fidelma P Dunne

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 14:13

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Recruiting the required number of participants is vital to the success of clinical research and yet many studies fail to achieve their expected recruitment rate. Increasing research participation is a key agen...

    Authors: Lisa Newington and Alison Metcalfe

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 14:10

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Tracing mail survey responses is useful for the management of reminders but may cause concerns about anonymity among prospective participants. We examined the impact of numbering return envelopes on the partic...

    Authors: Thomas V Perneger, Stéphane Cullati, Sandrine Rudaz, Thomas Agoritsas, Ralph E Schmidt, Christophe Combescure and Delphine S Courvoisier

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 14:6

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  6. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: Katie Gallacher, Bhautesh Jani, Deborah Morrison, Sara Macdonald, David Blane, Patricia Erwin, Carl R May, Victor M Montori, David T Eton, Fiona Smith, G David Batty and Frances S Mair

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 13:160

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    The original article was published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:10

  7. Content type: Research article

    To assess concordance between Medicare claims and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) reports of incident BM among prostate cancer (PCa) patients. The prevalence and consequences of bone metasta...

    Authors: Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Candice Yong, Arif Hussain, Brian Seal and C Daniel Mullins

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 14:1

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Accrual to Cancer Control and Supportive Care (CCL) studies can be challenging. Our objective was to identify facilitators and perceived barriers to successful Children’s Oncology Group (COG) CCL accrual from ...

    Authors: David VanHoff, Tanya Hesser, Katherine Patterson Kelly, David Freyer, Susan Stork and Lillian Sung

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:154

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The UK leads the world in recruitment of patients to cancer clinical trials, with a six-fold increase in recruitment during 2001–2010. However, there are large variations across cancer centres. This paper deta...

    Authors: Deborah Fenlon, Kim Chivers Seymour, Ikumi Okamoto, Jane Winter, Alison Richardson, Julia Addington-Hall, Jessica L Corner, Peter W Smith, Christine M May, Matthew Breckons and Claire Foster

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:153

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Employing waiting list control designs in psychological and behavioral intervention research may artificially inflate intervention effect estimates. This exploratory randomized controlled trial tested this pro...

    Authors: John A Cunningham, Kypros Kypri and Jim McCambridge

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:150

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Randomised controlled trials are becoming increasingly costly and time-consuming. In 2011, Royston and colleagues proposed a particular class of multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) designs intended to speed up the ev...

    Authors: Daniel J Bratton, Patrick PJ Phillips and Mahesh KB Parmar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:139

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The way in which maternity care is provided affects perinatal outcomes for pregnant adolescents; including the likelihood of preterm birth. The study purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting pregnan...

    Authors: Jyai Allen, Helen Stapleton, Sally Tracy and Sue Kildea

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:138

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) is a self-report questionnaire designed to help identify aberrant drug-related behavior in respondents who have been prescribed opioids for chronic pain. The full-lengt...

    Authors: Matthew D Finkelman, Ronald J Kulich, Driss Zoukhri, Niels Smits and Stephen F Butler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:126

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Treatment duration varies with the type of therapy and a patient’s recovery speed. Including such a variation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enables comparison of the actual therapeutic potential of di...

    Authors: Hilbert W van der Glas and Robert J van Grootel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:123

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  15. Content type: Debate

    Epidemiologic studies often struggle to adequately represent populations and outcomes of interest. Differences in methodology, data analysis and research questions often mean that reviews and synthesis of the ...

    Authors: Joanne Allen, Kerry J Inder, Terry J Lewin, John R Attia, Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Amanda L Baker, Trevor Hazell and Brian J Kelly

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:122

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in dementia is difficult. At some point people with dementia become unable to meaningfully assess their own HRQoL. At such a point in time researchers need...

    Authors: Alexander MM Arons, Paul FM Krabbe, Carla JM Schölzel-Dorenbos, Gert Jan van der Wilt and Marcel GM Olde Rikkert

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:110

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  17. Content type: Research article

    There is little published guidance as to the sample size required for a pilot or feasibility trial despite the fact that a sample size justification is a key element in the design of a trial. A sample size jus...

    Authors: Sophie AM Billingham, Amy L Whitehead and Steven A Julious

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:104

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The counterfactual approach provides a clear and coherent framework to think about a variety of important concepts related to causation. Meanwhile, directed acyclic graphs have been used as causal diagrams in ...

    Authors: Etsuji Suzuki, Toshiharu Mitsuhashi, Toshihide Tsuda and Eiji Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:101

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  19. Content type: Correspondence

    Many researchers favor repeated measures designs because they allow the detection of within-person change over time and typically have higher statistical power than cross-sectional designs. However, the pletho...

    Authors: Yi Guo, Henrietta L Logan, Deborah H Glueck and Keith E Muller

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:100

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Cognitive mapping is a participatory research methodology that documents, in visual form, a construct of the local environment in which people live and work. We adapted this method to provide detailed data abo...

    Authors: Jonathan Stadler, Charles Dugmore, Emilie Venables, Catherine MacPhail and Sinead Delany-Moretlwe

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:96

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Longitudinal cohort studies are highly valued in epidemiologic research for their ability to establish exposure-disease associations through known temporal sequences. A major challenge in cohort studies is rec...

    Authors: Jaime L Horton, Isabel G Jacobson, Alyson J Littman, John E Alcaraz, Besa Smith and Nancy F Crum-Cianflone

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:90

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  22. Content type: Research article

    As there are limited patients for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia trials, it is important that statistical methodologies in Phase II efficiently select regimens for subsequent evaluation in larger-scale Phase II...

    Authors: Christina Yap, Andrew Pettitt and Lucinda Billingham

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:87

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining ...

    Authors: Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Gail Snetro-Plewman, Karen Z Waltensperger, Davidson H Hamer, Chilobe Kambikambi, William MacLeod, Stephen Filumba, Bias Sichamba and David Marsh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:84

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  24. Content type: Research article

    To compare the results of a new-user cohort study design and the self-controlled case series (SCCS) design using the risk of hospitalisation for pneumonia in those dispensed proton pump inhibitors compared to ...

    Authors: Emmae N Ramsay, Nicole L Pratt, Philip Ryan and Elizabeth E Roughead

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:82

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Drug interactions can have a significant impact on the response to combinatorial therapy for anticancer treatment. In some instances these interactions can be anticipated based on pre-clinical models. However,...

    Authors: Wenfeng Kang, Robert S DiPaola and Alexei Vazquez

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:77

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Non-inferiority (NI) trials in drug research are used to demonstrate that a new treatment is not less effective than an active comparator. Since phase IV trials typically aim at informing a clinical decision, ...

    Authors: Rosemarie DLC Bernabe, Grace Wangge, Mirjam J Knol, Olaf H Klungel, Johannes JM van Delden, Anthonius de Boer, Arno W Hoes, Jan AM Raaijmakers and Ghislaine JMW van Thiel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:70

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  27. Content type: Correspondence

    The quality of a consultation provided by a physician can have a profound impact on the quality of care and patient engagement in treatment decisions. When the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) was developed, one of ...

    Authors: Kevin Gruffydd-Jones, Helen Marsden, Steve Holmes, Peter Kardos, Roger Escamilla, Roberto Dal Negro, June Roberts, Gilbert Nadeau, David Leather and Paul Jones

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:63

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The study describes the methodological challenges encountered in an observational study estimating the effectiveness of colonoscopy in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality.

    Authors: Binu J Jacob, Rinku Sutradhar, Rahim Moineddin, Nancy N Baxter and David R Urbach

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:59

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Using covariance or mean estimates from previous data introduces randomness into each power value in a power curve. Creating confidence intervals about the power estimates improves study planning by allowing s...

    Authors: Matthew J Gribbin, Yueh-Yun Chi, Paul W Stewart and Keith E Muller

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:57

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The role of the clinical nurse/midwife specialist and advanced nurse/midwife practitioner is complex not least because of the diversity in how the roles are operationalised across health settings and within mu...

    Authors: Joan G Lalor, Dympna Casey, Naomi Elliott, Imelda Coyne, Catherine Comiskey, Agnes Higgins, Kathy Murphy, Declan Devane and Cecily Begley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:55

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  31. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    The editors of BMC Medical Research Methodology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 12 (2012).

    Authors: Adrian Aldcroft

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:45

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  32. Content type: Debate

    Scoping studies are increasingly common for broadly searching the literature on a specific topic, yet researchers lack an agreed-upon definition of and framework for the methodology. In 2005, Arksey and O’Mall...

    Authors: Helena ML Daudt, Catherine van Mossel and Samantha J Scott

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:48

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Telephone surveys based on samples of landline telephone numbers are widely used to measure the prevalence of health risk behaviours such as smoking, drug use and alcohol consumption. An increasing number of h...

    Authors: Michael Livingston, Paul Dietze, Jason Ferris, Darren Pennay, Linda Hayes and Simon Lenton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:41

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  34. Content type: Correspondence

    Longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in the health service research, but the method and challenges particular to health care settings are not well described in the literature.We refl...

    Authors: Lynn Calman, Lisa Brunton and Alex Molassiotis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:14

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Efficient HIV prevention requires accurate identification of individuals with risky sexual behaviour. However, self-reported data from sexual behaviour surveys are prone to social desirability bias (SDB). Audi...

    Authors: Roxanne Beauclair, Fei Meng, Nele Deprez, Marleen Temmerman, Alex Welte, Niel Hens and Wim Delva

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:11

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  36. Content type: Correspondence

    Treatment burden can be defined as the self-care practices that patients with chronic illness must perform to respond to the requirements of their healthcare providers, as well as the impact that these practic...

    Authors: Katie Gallacher, Bhautesh Jani, Deborah Morrison, Sara Macdonald, David Blane, Patricia Erwin, Carl R May, Victor M Montori, David T Eton, Fiona Smith, David G Batty and Frances S Mair

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:10

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014 13:160

  37. Content type: Research article

    Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertai...

    Authors: Cherie Wells, Gregory S Kolt, Paul Marshall, Bridget Hill and Andrea Bialocerkowski

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:7

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Participant attrition in longitudinal studies can introduce systematic bias, favoring participants who return for follow-up, and increase the likelihood that those with complications will be underestimated. Ou...

    Authors: Janey C Peterson, Paul A Pirraglia, Martin T Wells and Mary E Charlson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:178

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  39. Content type: Research article

    In Australia telephone surveys have been the method of choice for ongoing jurisdictional population health surveys. Although it was estimated in 2011 that nearly 20% of the Australian population were mobile-on...

    Authors: Margo L Barr, Jason J van Ritten, David G Steel and Sarah V Thackway

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:177

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  40. Content type: Research article

    In Evidence-Based Medicine, clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews are crucial devices for medical practitioners in making clinical decision. Clinical practice guidelines are systematically develo...

    Authors: Miew Keen Choong and Guy Tsafnat

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:176

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Variation in counts between subjects at a given speed or work rate are the most important source of error in physical activity (PA) measurements with accelerometers. The aim of this study was to explore how th...

    Authors: Eivind Aadland and Jostein Steene-Johannessen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:172

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Use of the Internet to conduct randomised controlled trials is increasing, and provides potential to increase equity of access to medical research, increase the generalisability of trial results and decrease t...

    Authors: Erin Mathieu, Alexandra Barratt, Stacy M Carter and Gro Jamtvedt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:162

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  43. Content type: Research article

    This paper discusses whether baseline demographic, socio-economic, health variables, length of follow-up and method of contacting the participants predict non-response to the invitation for a second assessment...

    Authors: Anne M May, Lotte E Adema, Dora Romaguera, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Antonio Agudo, Ulf Ekelund, Annika Steffen, Philippos Orfanos, Nadia Slimani, Sabina Rinaldi, Traci Mouw, Sabine Rohrmann, Silke Hermann, Heiner Boeing, Manuela M Bergmann, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:148

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  44. Content type: Correspondence

    Although the outcomes of health promotion and prevention programmes may depend on the level of intervention, studies and trials often fail to take it into account. The objective of this work was to develop a f...

    Authors: Karine Legrand, Emilie Bonsergent, Clotilde Latarche, Fabienne Empereur, Jean François Collin, Edith Lecomte, Evelyne Aptel, Nathalie Thilly and Serge Briançon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:146

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Information from blood cultures is utilized for infection control, public health surveillance, and clinical outcome research. This information can be enriched by physicians’ assessments of positive blood cultu...

    Authors: Kim O Gradel, Jenny Dahl Knudsen, Magnus Arpi, Christian Østergaard, Henrik C Schønheyder and Mette Søgaard

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:139

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  46. Content type: Debate

    Despite growing support for mixed methods approaches we still have little systematic knowledge about the consequences of combining surveys and focus groups. While the methodological aspects of questionnaire su...

    Authors: Benedicte Carlsen and Claire Glenton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:134

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillanc...

    Authors: Awoke Misganaw, Damen Haile Mariam, Tekebash Araya and Aderaw Aneneh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:130

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  48. Content type: Study protocol

    A knowledge synthesis attempts to summarize all pertinent studies on a specific question, can improve the understanding of inconsistencies in diverse evidence, and can identify gaps in research evidence to def...

    Authors: Monika Kastner, Andrea C Tricco, Charlene Soobiah, Erin Lillie, Laure Perrier, Tanya Horsley, Vivian Welch, Elise Cogo, Jesmin Antony and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:114

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