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  1. Content type: Research article

    Health inequalities, worse health associated with social and economic disadvantage, are reported by a minority of research articles. Locating these studies when conducting an equity-focused systematic review i...

    Authors: Stephanie L Prady, Eleonora P Uphoff, Madeleine Power and Su Golder

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:106

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  2. Content type: Research article

    In individually randomised trials we might expect interventions delivered in groups or by care providers to result in clustering of outcomes for participants treated in the same group or by the same care provi...

    Authors: Jane Candlish, M. Dawn Teare, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Laura Flight, Laura Mandefield and Stephen J. Walters

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:105

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Survey researchers use monetary incentives as a strategy to motivate physicians’ survey participation. Experiments from general population surveys demonstrate that prepaid incentives increase response rates an...

    Authors: Kristine Wiant, Emily Geisen, Darryl Creel, Gordon Willis, Andrew Freedman, Janet de Moor and Carrie Klabunde

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:104

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Research waste is estimated to be very common, but assessments of its prevalence and scope are rare. As an example, we assessed research waste in clinical research on calcium intake (assessing study design and...

    Authors: Mark J. Bolland, Alison Avenell and Andrew Grey

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:103

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Polypharmacy can be either beneficial or harmful to children. We conducted a scoping review to examine the concept of pediatric polypharmacy: its definition, prevalence, extent and gaps in research. In this ma...

    Authors: Paul M Bakaki, Jennifer Staley, Rujia Liu, Neal Dawson, Negar Golchin, Alexis Horace, Hannah Johnson, Jennifer Waldron, Almut Winterstein, Lawrence C Kleinman and Shari D Bolen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:102

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Research waste can occur when trials are conducted in the wrong populations. Vitamin D deficient populations are most likely to benefit from vitamin D supplementation. We investigated waste attributable to ran...

    Authors: Mark J. Bolland, Andrew Grey and Alison Avenell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:101

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the diagnostic value of The Western Electric (WE) statistical process control (SPC) chart rules and the Anhoej rules for detection of non-random variation in t...

    Authors: Jacob Anhøj and Tore Wentzel-Larsen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:100

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  8. Content type: Research article

    In the presence of an intermediate clinical event, the analysis of time-to-event survival data by conventional approaches, such as the log-rank test, can result in biased results due to the length-biased chara...

    Authors: Sohee Kim, Jinheum Kim and Chung Mo Nam

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:98

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Consumers, clinicians, policymakers and researchers require high quality evidence to guide decision-making in child health. Though Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) are a well-established source of evidence, l...

    Authors: Michelle Gates, Sarah A Elliott, Cydney Johnson, Denise Thomson, Katrina Williams, Ricardo M Fernandes and Lisa Hartling

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:99

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The data from individual observational studies included in meta-analyses of drug effects are collected either from ad hoc methods (i.e. “primary data”) or databases that were established for non-research purpo...

    Authors: Guillermo Prada-Ramallal, Fatima Roque, Maria Teresa Herdeiro, Bahi Takkouche and Adolfo Figueiras

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:97

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  11. Content type: Research article

    We are witnessing an exponential increase in the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported from mainland China. The increase is particularly notable in the field of new generation antidepressants ...

    Authors: Zheng Tong, Fangzhou Li, Yusuke Ogawa, Norio Watanabe and Toshi A. Furukawa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:96

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The objective of this study was to compare three data collection methods for the measurement of parent experiences with hospital outpatient care for child and adolescent diabetes, based on a randomised nationa...

    Authors: Oyvind Bjertnaes, Hilde Hestad Iversen and Torild Skrivarhaug

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:95

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    Conducting prospective epidemiological studies of hospitalized patients with rare diseases like primary subarachnoid hemorrhage (pSAH) are difficult due to time and budgetary constraints. Routinely collected a...

    Authors: S. W. English, L. McIntyre, V. Saigle, M. Chassé, D. A. Fergusson, A. F. Turgeon, F. Lauzier, D. Griesdale, A. Garland, R. Zarychanski, A. Algird and C. van Walraven

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:94

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) are recommended for the assessment of the reliability of measurement scales. However, the ICC is subject to a variety of statistical assumptions such as normality and ...

    Authors: Carly A. Bobak, Paul J. Barr and A. James O’Malley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:93

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  15. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to describe the level of agreement of three commonly used delirium instruments: the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), and Confusion Assess...

    Authors: Alden L. Gross, Doug Tommet, Madeline D’Aquila, Eva Schmitt, Edward R. Marcantonio, Benjamin Helfand, Sharon K. Inouye and Richard N. Jones

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:92

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) requires specifying a suitable conditional imputation model for each incomplete variable and then iteratively imputes the missing values. In the presence of miss...

    Authors: Jacques-Emmanuel Galimard, Sylvie Chevret, Emmanuel Curis and Matthieu Resche-Rigon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:90

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Research participant recruitment is often fraught with obstacles. Poor response rates can reduce statistical power, threaten both internal and external validity, and increase study costs and duration. Military...

    Authors: Alyson J. Littman, Gala True, Emily Ashmore, Tracy Wellens and Nicholas L. Smith

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:88

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Informative attrition occurs when the reason participants drop out from a study is associated with the study outcome. Analysing data with informative attrition can bias longitudinal study inferences. Approache...

    Authors: Catherine A. Welch, Séverine Sabia, Eric Brunner, Mika Kivimäki and Martin J. Shipley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:89

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Missing data can introduce bias in the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), but are typically unavoidable in pragmatic clinical research, especially when patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) ar...

    Authors: Ines Rombach, Alastair M. Gray, Crispin Jenkinson, David W. Murray and Oliver Rivero-Arias

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:87

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Financial rewards have been shown to be an important motivator to include normal healthy volunteers in trials. Less emphasis has been put on non-healthy volunteers. No previous study has investigated the impac...

    Authors: Dawid Pieper, Nina Kotte and Peggy Ober

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:86

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  21. Content type: Debate

    Systematic literature searching is recognised as a critical component of the systematic review process. It involves a systematic search for studies and aims for a transparent report of study identification, le...

    Authors: Chris Cooper, Andrew Booth, Jo Varley-Campbell, Nicky Britten and Ruth Garside

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:85

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  22. Content type: Research article

    In contrast to aetiological associations, there is little empirical evidence for generalising health service use associations from cohort studies. We compared the health service use of cohort study participant...

    Authors: Nicola Creighton, Stuart Purdie, Matthew Soeberg, Richard Walton, Deborah Baker and Jane Young

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:84

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Random effects modelling is routinely used in clustered data, but for prediction models, random effects are commonly substituted with the mean zero after model development. In this study, we proposed a novel a...

    Authors: Haifang Ni, Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Mirjam Nielen and Irene Klugkist

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:83

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Health economic evaluations of interventions in infectious disease are commonly based on the predictions of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems or Markov models (MMs). Standard MMs are static, whereas...

    Authors: Katrin Haeussler, Ardo van den Hout and Gianluca Baio

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:82

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Statistical methodology is a powerful tool in the health research; however, there is wide accord that statistical methodologies are not usually used properly. In particular when multiple comparisons are needed...

    Authors: Massimiliano Giacalone, Zirilli Agata, Paolo Carmelo Cozzucoli and Angela Alibrandi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:81

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The lack of suitable and reliable scales to measure self-reported health and health behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is an important methodological challenge in health research. This ...

    Authors: Kristel Vlot-van Anrooij, Hilde Tobi, Thessa I. M. Hilgenkamp, Geraline L. Leusink and Jenneken Naaldenberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:80

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  27. Content type: Technical advance

    Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCT) typically exclude certain patient subgroups, thereby potentially jeopardizing estimation of a drug’s effects when prescribed to wider populations and under routine ...

    Authors: Helene Karcher, Shuai Fu, Jie Meng, Mikkel Zöllner Ankarfeldt, Orestis Efthimiou, Mark Belger, Josep Maria Haro, Lucien Abenhaim and Clementine Nordon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:75

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Multilevel models for non-normal outcomes are widely used in medical and health sciences research. While methods for interpreting fixed effects are well-developed, methods to quantify and interpret random clus...

    Authors: Thomas J. Glorioso, Gary K. Grunwald, P. Michael Ho and Thomas M. Maddox

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:74

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Records pertaining to individuals whose identity cannot be verified with legal documentation may contain errors, or be incorrect by intention of the individual. Probabilistic data linkage, especially in vulner...

    Authors: Holly Tibble, Hsei Di Law, Matthew J. Spittal, Rosemary Karmel, Rohan Borschmann, Katie Hail-Jares, Laura A. Thomas and Stuart A. Kinner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:76

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a common condition with many unmet clinical needs. Pooled analysis of studies is an important tool for advancing medical understanding. This process starts with a syst...

    Authors: Benjamin M. Davies, Samuel Goh, Keonwoo Yi, Isla Kuhn and Mark R. N. Kotter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:73

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  31. Content type: Research article

    There are an increasing number of geo-coded information streams available which could improve public health surveillance accuracy and efficiency when properly integrated. Specifically, for zoonotic diseases, k...

    Authors: C. Rotejanaprasert, A. Lawson, H. Rossow, J. Sane, O. Huitu, H. Henttonen and V. J. Del Rio Vilas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:72

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Limited translational success in critical care medicine is thought to be in part due to inadequate methodology, study design, and reporting in preclinical studies. The purpose of this study was to compare repo...

    Authors: Justin S. Merkow, Janine M. Hoerauf, Angela F. Moss, Jason Brainard, Lena M. Mayes, Ana Fernandez-Bustamante, Susan K. Mikulich-Gilbertson and Karsten Bartels

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:71

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  33. Content type: Research article

    A thorough evaluation of the adequacy of clinical practice in a designated health care setting and temporal context is key for clinical care improvement. This study aimed to perform a clinical audit of primary...

    Authors: María Abad-Arranz, Ana Moran-Rodríguez, Enrique Mascarós Balaguer, Carmen Quintana Velasco, Laura Abad Polo, Sara Núñez Palomo, Jaime Gonzálvez Rey, Ana María Fernández Vargas, Antonio Hidalgo Requena, Jose Manuel Helguera Quevedo, Marina García Pardo and Jose Luis Lopez-Campos

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:68

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Recently, the intervention calculus when the DAG is absent (IDA) method was developed to estimate lower bounds of causal effects from observational high-dimensional data. Originally it was introduced to assess...

    Authors: Vahé Asvatourian, Clélia Coutzac, Nathalie Chaput, Caroline Robert, Stefan Michiels and Emilie Lanoy

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:67

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Few studies have compared methods to correct for retest effects or practice effects in settings where an acute event could influence test performance, such as major surgery. Our goal in this study was to evalu...

    Authors: Annie M. Racine, Yun Gou, Tamara G. Fong, Edward R. Marcantonio, Eva M. Schmitt, Thomas G. Travison, Sharon K. Inouye and Richard N. Jones

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:69

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Network meta-analysis (NMA) allows for the estimation of comparative effectiveness of treatments that have not been studied in head-to-head trials; however, relative treatment effects for all interventions can...

    Authors: Susanne Schmitz, Áine Maguire, James Morris, Kai Ruggeri, Elisa Haller, Isla Kuhn, Joy Leahy, Natalia Homer, Ayesha Khan, Jack Bowden, Vanessa Buchanan, Michael O’Dwyer, Gordon Cook and Cathal Walsh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:66

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  37. Content type: Research article

    A new patient-reported health measurement model has been developed to quantify descriptions of health states. Known as the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR) model, it is based on item response theory....

    Authors: Catharina G. M. Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Edwin R. van den Heuvel and Paul F. M. Krabbe

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:62

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  38. Content type: Research article

    In pharmacoepidemiology, the prescription preference-based instrumental variables (IV) are often used with linear models to solve the endogeneity due to unobserved confounders even when the outcome and the end...

    Authors: Babagnidé François Koladjo, Sylvie Escolano and Pascale Tubert-Bitter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:61

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Log-binomial and robust (modified) Poisson regression models are popular approaches to estimate risk ratios for binary response variables. Previous studies have shown that comparatively they produce similar po...

    Authors: Wansu Chen, Lei Qian, Jiaxiao Shi and Meredith Franklin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:63

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Attrition occurs when a participant fails to respond to one or more study waves. The accumulation of attrition over several waves can lower the sample size and power and create a final sample that could differ...

    Authors: Samantha Spiers, Evrim Oral, Elizabeth T. H. Fontham, Edward S. Peters, James L. Mohler, Jeannette T. Bensen and Christine S. Brennan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:60

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Web-based surveys have become increasingly popular but response rates are low and may be prone to selection bias. How people are invited to participate may impact response rates and needs further study as prev...

    Authors: Xiaochen Tai, Alanna M. Smith, Allison J. McGeer, Eve Dubé, Dorothy Linn Holness, Kevin Katz, Linda McGillis Hall, Shelly A. McNeil, Jeff Powis and Brenda L. Coleman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:59

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Realist approaches seek to answer questions such as ‘how?’, ‘why?’, ‘for whom?’, ‘in what circumstances?’ and ‘to what extent?’ interventions ‘work’ using context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations. Quanti...

    Authors: John A. Ford, Andy Jones, Geoff Wong, Allan Clark, Tom Porter and Nick Steel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:57

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