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  1. Balanced decisions about health care interventions require reliable evidence on harms as well as benefits. Most systematic reviews focus on efficacy and randomised trials, for which the methodology is well est...

    Authors: Heather M McIntosh, Nerys F Woolacott and Anne-Marie Bagnall

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:19

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Recently developed measures such as I 2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of...

    Authors: Elmer V Villanueva and Silva Zavarsek

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:18

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Reducing maternal mortality and morbidity are among the key international development goals. A prerequisite for monitoring the progress towards attainment of these goals is accurate assessment of the levels of...

    Authors: A Metin Gülmezoglu, Lale Say, Ana P Betrán, Jose Villar and Gilda Piaggio

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:16

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in many developed countries appears to be increasing. There is some evidence from Latin America that COPD is a growing cause of death, but informa...

    Authors: Ana MB Menezes, Cesar G Victora and Rogelio Perez-Padilla

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:15

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Current methods of measuring the quality of journals assume that citations of articles within journals are normally distributed. Furthermore using journal impact factors to measure the quality of individual ar...

    Authors: Andy R Weale, Mick Bailey and Paul A Lear

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:14

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Given an observed test statistic and its degrees of freedom, one may compute the observed P value with most statistical packages. It is unknown to what extent test statistics and P values are congruent in publish...

    Authors: Emili García-Berthou and Carles Alcaraz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:13

    Content type: Research article

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  7. In recent years there has been increased interest in evaluating breast cancer screening using data from before-and-after studies in multiple geographic regions. One approach, not previously mentioned, is the p...

    Authors: Stuart G Baker, Barrett S Kramer and Philip C Prorok

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:12

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly use...

    Authors: David J Solomon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:11

    Content type: Software

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  9. The use of preference-based measures in the evaluation of health outcomes has extended considerably over the last decade. Their alleged advantage over other types of general instruments in the evaluation of he...

    Authors: Luis Prieto and José A Sacristán

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:10

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Increasingly, researchers are recognizing that there are many situations where the use of a cluster randomized trial may be more appropriate than an individually randomized trial. Similarly, the need for appro...

    Authors: Marion K Campbell, Jeremy M Grimshaw and Diana R Elbourne

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:9

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Patient recruitment is one of the most difficult aspects of clinical trials, especially for research involving elderly subjects. In this paper, we describe our experience with patient recruitment for the behav...

    Authors: Bei-Hung Chang, Ann M Hendricks, Mara T Slawsky and Joseph S Locastro

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:8

    Content type: Research article

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  12. We sought to improve upon previously published statistical modeling strategies for binary classification of dyslipidemia for general population screening purposes based on the waist-to-hip circumference ratio ...

    Authors: Michael C Costanza and Fred Paccaud

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:7

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The purpose of this study was to determine the standard tasks performed by clinical research coordinators (CRCs) in oncology clinical trials.

    Authors: Fernando Rico-Villademoros, Teresa Hernando, Juan-Luis Sanz, Antonio López-Alonso, Oscar Salamanca, Carlos Camps and Rafael Rosell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:6

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different...

    Authors: Rachel L Shaw, Andrew Booth, Alex J Sutton, Tina Miller, Jonathan A Smith, Bridget Young, David R Jones and Mary Dixon-Woods

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:5

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic "provings" ...

    Authors: Trevor DB Thompson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:4

    Content type: Debate

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  16. Effective strategies for implementing best practices in low and middle income countries are needed. RHL is an annually updated electronic publication containing Cochrane systematic reviews, commentaries and pr...

    Authors: A Metin Gülmezoglu, José Villar, Jeremy Grimshaw, Gilda Piaggio, Pisake Lumbiganon and Ana Langer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:2

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Controlled clinical trials of health care interventions are either explanatory or pragmatic. Explanatory trials test whether an intervention is efficacious; that is, whether it can have a beneficial effect in ...

    Authors: Marshall Godwin, Lucia Ruhland, Ian Casson, Susan MacDonald, Dianne Delva, Richard Birtwhistle, Miu Lam and Rachelle Seguin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:28

    Content type: Debate

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  18. In the era of evidence based medicine, with systematic reviews as its cornerstone, adequate quality assessment tools should be available. There is currently a lack of a systematically developed and evaluated t...

    Authors: Penny Whiting, Anne WS Rutjes, Johannes B Reitsma, Patrick MM Bossuyt and Jos Kleijnen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:25

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Public health research involving social or kin groups (such as sexual partners or family members), rather than samples of unrelated individuals, has become more widespread in response to social ecological appr...

    Authors: James M McMahon, Stephanie Tortu, Leilani Torres, Enrique R Pouget and Rahul Hamid

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:24

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Cross-sectional studies with binary outcomes analyzed by logistic regression are frequent in the epidemiological literature. However, the odds ratio can importantly overestimate the prevalence ratio, the measu...

    Authors: Aluísio JD Barros and Vânia N Hirakata

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:21

    Content type: Research article

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  21. While the desirability of interdisciplinary inquiry has been widely acknowledged, indeed has become 'the mantra of science policy', the methods of interdisciplinary collaboration are opaque to outsiders and gener...

    Authors: David W Robertson, Douglas K Martin and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:20

    Content type: Debate

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  22. The aim of this article is to explore ways in which selection bias and ascertainment bias can be reduced and investigated in trials, by using the example of a drug trial carried out in both developed and devel...

    Authors: Gilda Piaggio, Diana Elbourne, Kenneth F Schulz, José Villar, Alain PY Pinol and A Metin Gülmezoglu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:19

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The Anglia Menorrhagia Education Study (AMES) is a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an education package applied to general practices. Binary data are available from two sources; genera...

    Authors: Richard M Nixon, Stephen W Duffy and Guy RK Fender

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:17

    Content type: Research article

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  24. There is common belief among some medical researchers that if a potential surrogate endpoint is highly correlated with a true endpoint, then a positive (or negative) difference in potential surrogate endpoints...

    Authors: Stuart G Baker and Barnett S Kramer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:16

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The electronic version of the British Medical Journal (eBMJ) has a unique feature in that it provides an electronic record of the number of times an article has been viewed ("hits") in the week after its publi...

    Authors: Yoon K Loke and Sheena Derry

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:14

    Content type: Debate

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  26. As an increasingly large number of meta-analyses are published, quantitative methods are needed to help clinicians and systematic review teams determine when meta-analyses are not up to date.

    Authors: Nicholas J Barrowman, Manchun Fang, Margaret Sampson and David Moher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:13

    Content type: Research article

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  27. It has been estimated that about 45% of abstracts that are accepted for presentation at biomedical meetings will subsequently be published in full. The acceptance of abstracts at meetings and their fate after ...

    Authors: Erik von Elm, Michael C Costanza, Bernhard Walder and Martin R Tramèr

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:12

    Content type: Research article

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  28. When evaluating cancer screening it is important to estimate the cumulative risk of false positives from periodic screening. Because the data typically come from studies in which the number of screenings varie...

    Authors: Stuart G Baker, Diane Erwin and Barnett S Kramer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:11

    Content type: Research article

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  29. All quantifications of mortality, morbidity, and other health measures involve numerous sources of error. The routine quantification of random sampling error makes it easy to forget that other sources of error...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips and Luwanna M LaPole

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:9

    Content type: Debate

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  30. Many randomized trials involve missing binary outcomes. Although many previous adjustments for missing binary outcomes have been proposed, none of these makes explicit use of randomization to bound the bias wh...

    Authors: Stuart G Baker and Laurence S Freedman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:8

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:1

  31. Randomised controlled clinical trials are performed to resolve uncertainty concerning comparator interventions. Appropriate acknowledgment of uncertainty enables the concurrent achievement of two goals : the a...

    Authors: Howard Mann and Benjamin Djulbegovic

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:7

    Content type: Debate

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  32. Phase II cancer studies are undertaken to assess the activity of a new drug or a new treatment regimen. Activity is sometimes defined in terms of a survival probability, a binary outcome such as one-year survi...

    Authors: L Douglas Case and Timothy M Morgan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:6

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The Bayesian approach is one alternative for estimating correlation coefficients in which knowledge from previous studies is incorporated to improve estimation. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the u...

    Authors: Enrique F Schisterman, Kirsten B Moysich, Lucinda J England and Malla Rao

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:5

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Because randomized cancer screening trials are very expensive, observational cancer screening studies can play an important role in the early phases of screening evaluation. Periodic screening evaluation (PSE)...

    Authors: Stuart G Baker, Diane Erwin, Barnett S Kramer and Philip C Prorok

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:4

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Little work has been done to investigate the suggestion that the use of selected scales from a multi-scale health-status questionnaire would compromise reliability and validity. The aim of this study was to co...

    Authors: Christina Gummesson, Isam Atroshi and Charlotte Ekdahl

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:3

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The evaluation of abstracts for scientific meetings has been shown to suffer from poor inter observer reliability. A measure was developed to assess the formal quality of abstract submissions in a standardized...

    Authors: Antje Timmer, Lloyd R Sutherland and Robert J Hilsden

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2003 3:2

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Longitudinal studies with binary repeated outcomes are now widespread in epidemiology. The statistical analysis of these studies presents difficulties and standard methods are inadequate.

    Authors: Isabelle Carrière and Jean Bouyer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2002 2:15

    Content type: Research article

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