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  1. As in any measurement process, a certain amount of error may be expected in routine population surveillance operations such as those in demographic surveillance sites (DSSs). Vital events are likely to be miss...

    Authors: Edward Fottrell, Peter Byass and Yemane Berhane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:13

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Interim analysis of accumulating trial data is important to protect participant safety during randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) often undertake such analyses, but their wid...

    Authors: Puvan Tharmanathan, Melanie Calvert, John Hampton and Nick Freemantle

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:12

    Content type: Correspondence

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  3. When a therapy has been evaluated in the first clinical study, the outcome is often compared descriptively to outcomes in corresponding cohorts receiving other treatments. Such comparisons are often limited to...

    Authors: Harald J Hamre, Anja Glockmann, Wilfried Tröger, Gunver S Kienle and Helmut Kiene

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:11

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Little is known about the impact of data collection method on self-reported cancer screening behaviours, particularly among hard-to-reach populations. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of dat...

    Authors: Melissa A Clark, Michelle L Rogers, Gene F Armstrong, William Rakowski and Frederick J Kviz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:10

    Content type: Research article

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  5. It is usually preferable to model and estimate prevalence ratios instead of odds ratios in cross-sectional studies when diseases or injuries are not rare. Problems with existing methods of modeling prevalence ...

    Authors: Martin R Petersen and James A Deddens

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:9

    Content type: Research article

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  6. One attraction of meta-analysis is the forest plot, a compact overview of the essential data included in a systematic review and the overall 'result'. However, meta-analysis is not always suitable for synthesi...

    Authors: David Ogilvie, Debra Fayter, Mark Petticrew, Amanda Sowden, Sian Thomas, Margaret Whitehead and Gill Worthy

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:8

    Content type: Research article

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  7. A spectrum effect was defined as differences in the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test according to the patient's characteristics or disease features. A spectrum effect can lead to a spectrum bias...

    Authors: Caroline Elie and Joël Coste

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:7

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Malaria is a major public health problem in Malawi, however, quantifying its burden in a population is a challenge. Routine hospital data provide a proxy for measuring the incidence of severe malaria and for c...

    Authors: Lawrence N Kazembe, Tobias F Chirwa, Jupiter S Simbeye and Jimmy J Namangale

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:6

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Electronic monitoring (EM) is used increasingly to measure medication non-adherence. Unbiased EM assessment requires fulfillment of assumptions. The purpose of this study was to determine assumptions needed fo...

    Authors: Kris Denhaerynck, Petra Schäfer-Keller, James Young, Jürg Steiger, Andreas Bock and Sabina De Geest

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:5

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely applied, although the evidence base is weak. Previous reviews on medical interventions have shown that conclusions based on published data alone may no longer h...

    Authors: Frank Peinemann, Natalie McGauran, Stefan Sauerland and Stefan Lange

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:4

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Missing data may bias the results of clinical trials and other studies. This study describes the response rate, questionnaire responses and financial costs associated with offering participants from a multilin...

    Authors: Elizabeth Dormandy, Katrina Brown, Erin P Reid and Theresa M Marteau

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:2

    Content type: Research article

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  12. We have previously described a method for dealing with missing data in a prospective cardiac registry initiative. The method involves merging registry data to corresponding ICD-9-CM administrative data to fill...

    Authors: Danielle A Southern, Colleen M Norris, Hude Quan, Fiona M Shrive, P Diane Galbraith, Karin Humphries, Min Gao, Merril L Knudtson and William A Ghali

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:1

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Incidence and lifetime risk of diabetes are important public health measures. Traditionally, nonparametric estimates are obtained from survey data by means of a Nelson-Aalen estimator which requires data infor...

    Authors: Henrik Støvring and Mei-Cheng Wang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:53

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The criteria for stopping Delphi studies are often subjective. This study aimed to examine whether consensus and stability in the Delphi process can be ascertained by descriptive evaluation of trends in partic...

    Authors: Elizabeth A Holey, Jennifer L Feeley, John Dixon and Vicki J Whittaker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:52

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Low response and reporting errors are major concerns for survey epidemiologists. However, while nonresponse is commonly investigated, the effects of misclassification are often ignored, possibly because they a...

    Authors: A Rosemary Tate, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, Nicola T Fear, Roberto Rona, Simon Wessely and Matthew Hotopf

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:51

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The most commonly used survey methods are self-administered questionnaires, telephone interviews, and a mixture of both. But until now evidence out of randomised controlled trials as to whether patient respons...

    Authors: Margitta Lungenhausen, Stefan Lange, Christoph Maier, Claudia Schaub, Hans J Trampisch and Heinz G Endres

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:50

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Although there have been reported benefits of health education interventions across various health issues, the key to program effectiveness is participation and retention. Unfortunately, not everyone is willin...

    Authors: Enza Gucciardi, Jill I Cameron, Chen Di Liao, Alison Palmer and Donna E Stewart

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:47

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The lack of robust systems for monitoring quality in healthcare has been highlighted. Statistical process control (SPC) methods, utilizing the increasingly available routinely collected electronic patient reco...

    Authors: Thabani Sibanda and Nokuthaba Sibanda

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:46

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Birth weight and length have seasonal fluctuations. Previous analyses of birth weight by latitude effects identified seemingly contradictory results, showing both 6 and 12 monthly periodicities in weight. The ...

    Authors: John McGrath, Adrian Barnett, Darryl Eyles, Thomas Burne, Carsten B Pedersen and Preben Bo Mortensen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:45

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In an effort to identify previously unrecognized aspects of editorial decision-making, we explored the words and phrases that one group of editors used during their meetings.

    Authors: Kay Dickersin, Elizabeth Ssemanda, Catherine Mansell and Drummond Rennie

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:44

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South East Asia. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad rese...

    Authors: David J Henderson-Smart, Pisake Lumbiganon, Mario R Festin, Jacqueline J Ho, Hakimi Mohammad, Steve J McDonald, Sally Green and Caroline A Crowther

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:43

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Recruiting and retaining GPs for research can prove difficult, and may result in sub-optimal patient participation where GPs are required to recruit patients. Low participation rates may affect the validity of...

    Authors: Michelle K Williamson, Jane Pirkis, Jon J Pfaff, Orla Tyson, Moira Sim, Ngaire Kerse, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Nigel P Stocks and Osvaldo P Almeida

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:42

    Content type: Research article

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  23. We aimed at assessing the degree of measurement error in essential fatty acid intakes from a food frequency questionnaire and the impact of correcting for such an error on precision and bias of odds ratios in ...

    Authors: May A Beydoun, Jay S Kaufman, Joseph Ibrahim, Jessie A Satia and Gerardo Heiss

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:41

    Content type: Research article

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  24. This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian) approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the...

    Authors: Afisi S Ismaila, Angelo Canty and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:39

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The Bayesian approach is now widely recognised as a proper framework for analysing risk in health care. However, the traditional text-book Bayesian approach is in many cases difficult to implement, as it is ba...

    Authors: Terje Aven and Karianne Eidesen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:38

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The widespread international use of the 26-item WHO Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL-Bref) necessitates the assessment of its factor structure across cultures. For, alternative factor models may provide a be...

    Authors: Jude U Ohaeri, Abdel W Awadalla, Abdul-Hamid M El-Abassi and Anila Jacob

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:37

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of an alternative cervical cancer test – visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) – by addressing possible imperfections in the gold standard through late...

    Authors: Lynne Gaffikin, John A McGrath, Marc Arbyn and Paul D Blumenthal

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:36

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Missing data is a challenging problem in many prognostic studies. Multiple imputation (MI) accounts for imputation uncertainty that allows for adequate statistical testing. We developed and tested a methodolog...

    Authors: Martijn W Heymans, Stef van Buuren, Dirk L Knol, Willem van Mechelen and Henrica CW de Vet

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:33

    Content type: Research article

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  29. With the advent of high throughput genotyping technology and the information available via projects such as the human genome sequencing and the HapMap project, more and more data relevant to the study of genet...

    Authors: Angela J Frodsham and Julian PT Higgins

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:31

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The 'Hawthorne Effect' may be an important factor affecting the generalisability of clinical research to routine practice, but has been little studied. Hawthorne Effects have been reported in previous clinical...

    Authors: Rob McCarney, James Warner, Steve Iliffe, Robbert van Haselen, Mark Griffin and Peter Fisher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:30

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Hierarchical modelling represents a statistical method used to analyze nested data, as those concerning patients afferent to different hospitals. Aim of this paper is to build a hierarchical regression model u...

    Authors: Paola D'Errigo, Maria E Tosti, Danilo Fusco, Carlo A Perucci and Fulvia Seccareccia

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:29

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Information overload, increasing time constraints, and inappropriate search strategies complicate the detection of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The aim of this study was to provide clinicians with reco...

    Authors: Andrea Haase, Markus Follmann, Guido Skipka and Hanna Kirchner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:28

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Data for health surveys are often collected using either mailed questionnaires, telephone interviews or a combination. Mode of data collection can affect the propensity to refuse to respond and result in diffe...

    Authors: Helene Feveile, Ole Olsen and Annie Hogh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:27

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Understanding the relationships between physical activity (PA) and disease has become a major area of research interest. Activity monitors, devices that quantify free-living PA for prolonged periods of time (d...

    Authors: David R Paul, Matthew Kramer, Alanna J Moshfegh, David J Baer and William V Rumpler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:26

    Content type: Research article

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  35. There is much evidence to suggest that risk for common clinical disorders begins in foetal life. Exposure to environmental risk factors however is often not random. Many commonly used indices of prenatal adver...

    Authors: Anita Thapar, Gordon Harold, Frances Rice, XiaoJia Ge, Jacky Boivin, Dale Hay, Marianne van den Bree and Allyson Lewis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:25

    Content type: Research article

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  36. To investigate the interchangeability of measures of disability and health-related quality of life (HRQL) by comparing their associations patterns with disease-related impairment measures in patients with a va...

    Authors: Nadine Weisscher, Rob J de Haan and Marinus Vermeulen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:24

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The choice between paper data collection methods and electronic data collection (EDC) methods has become a key question for clinical researchers. There remains a need to examine potential benefits, efficiencie...

    Authors: Soe Soe Thwin, Kerri M Clough-Gorr, Maribet C McCarty, Timothy L Lash, Sharon H Alford, Diana SM Buist, Shelley M Enger, Terry S Field, Floyd Frost, Feifei Wei and Rebecca A Silliman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:23

    Content type: Technical advance

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  38. The ability to locate those sampled has important implications for response rates and thus the success of survey research. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of locating women requiring tracin...

    Authors: Suzanne M Cadarette, Leigh Dickson, Monique AM Gignac, Dorcas E Beaton, Susan B Jaglal and Gillian A Hawker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:22

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Claims data provide rapid indicators of SSIs for coronary artery bypass surgery and have been shown to successfully rank hospitals by SSI rates. We now operationalize this method for use by payers without tran...

    Authors: Susan S Huang, James M Livingston, Nigel SB Rawson, Steven Schmaltz and Richard Platt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:20

    Content type: Software

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  40. Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of meas...

    Authors: Matthew Hankins

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:19

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Analyzing drop out rates and when they occur may give important information about the patient characteristics and trial characteristics that affect the overall uptake of an intervention.

    Authors: Carl Heneghan, Rafael Perera, Alison Ward A, David Fitzmaurice, Emma Meats and Paul Glasziou

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:18

    Content type: Research article

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