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  1. Multiple imputation (MI) provides an effective approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies, as it can properly account for the missing data uncertainty. The multiply imputed d...

    Authors: Andrea Marshall, Douglas G Altman, Roger L Holder and Patrick Royston
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:57
  2. Innovations to be deployed during consultations with patients may influence the clinical performance of the medical practitioner. This study examined the impact on General Practitioners' (GPs) consultation per...

    Authors: Moyez Jiwa, Robert K McKinley, Katrina Spilsbury, Hayley Arnet and Marthe Smith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:54
  3. Rankings based on outcome are often used to present health care provider performance. These rankings do however not reflect that part of the variation in outcome between providers is caused by natural variatio...

    Authors: Hester F Lingsma, Marinus JC Eijkemans and Ewout W Steyerberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:53
  4. Community-based recruitment is challenging particularly if the sampling frame is not easily defined as in the case of people who drink rainwater. Strategies for contacting participants must be carefully consid...

    Authors: Shelly Rodrigo, Martha Sinclair, David Cunliffe and Karin Leder
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:51
  5. Observational outcome studies of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) require adjustment for co-morbidity to produce valid results. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of admin...

    Authors: Paul E Ronksley, Willis H Tsai, Hude Quan, Peter Faris and Brenda R Hemmelgarn
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:50
  6. Linking population health data to pathology data is a new approach for the evaluation of predictive tests that is potentially more efficient, feasible and efficacious than current methods. Studies evaluating t...

    Authors: Samantha J Lain, Charles S Algert, Vitomir Tasevski, Jonathan M Morris and Christine L Roberts
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:48
  7. Response rates in surveys have been falling over the last 20 years, leading to the need for novel approaches to enhance recruitment. This study describes strategies used to maximise recruitment to a home inter...

    Authors: Kirsty Kiezebrink, Iain K Crombie, Linda Irvine, Vivien Swanson, Kevin Power, Wendy L Wrieden and Peter W Slane
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:46
  8. Self-reported data are a common source of information about drug exposure. Modes of data collection differ considerably and the questionnaire's structure may affect prevalence estimates. We compared the recall...

    Authors: Helena Gama, Sofia Correia and Nuno Lunet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:45
  9. Lower-than-expected incidence of HIV undermines sample size calculations and compromises the power of a HIV prevention trial. We evaluated the effectiveness of interim monitoring of HIV infection rates and on-...

    Authors: Vera Halpern, Orikomaba Obunge, Folasade Ogunsola, Sakiru Otusanya, John Umo-Otong, Chin-Hua Wang and Neha Mehta
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:44
  10. The timing of prophylactic antibiotic administration is a patient safety outcome that is recurrently tracked and reported. The interpretation of these data has important implications for patient safety practic...

    Authors: Carrie Cartmill, Lorelei Lingard, Glenn Regehr, Sherry Espin, John Bohnen, Ross Baker and Lorne Rotstein
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:43
  11. Studies of cancer incidence and early management will increasingly draw on routine electronic patient records. However, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. We developed a generalisable strategy for investiga...

    Authors: A Rosemary Tate, Alexander GR Martin, Tarita Murray-Thomas, Sarah R Anderson and Jackie A Cassell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:42
  12. Assumptions underlying placebo controlled trials include that the placebo effect impacts on all study arms equally, and that treatment effects are additional to the placebo effect. However, these assumptions h...

    Authors: M Diana van Die, Kerry M Bone, Henry G Burger and Helena J Teede
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:41
  13. Recruitment and retention of patients and healthcare providers in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is important in order to determine the effectiveness of interventions. However, failure to achieve recruitm...

    Authors: Claire S Leathem, Margaret E Cupples, Mary C Byrne, Mary O'Malley, Ailish Houlihan, Andrew W Murphy and Susan M Smith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:40
  14. In a multicenter trial, responses for subjects belonging to a common center are correlated. Such a clustering is usually assessed through the design effect, defined as a ratio of two variances. The aim of this...

    Authors: Emilie Vierron and Bruno Giraudeau
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:39
  15. The gathering of feedback on doctors from patients after consultations is an important part of patient involvement and participation. This study first assesses the 23-item Patient Feedback Questionnaire (PFQ) ...

    Authors: Tsair-Wei Chien, Weng-Chung Wang, Sho-Be Lin, Ching-Yih Lin, How-Ran Guo and Shih-Bin Su
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:38
  16. Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are increasingly used to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve health outcomes or prevent diseases. However, the efficiency and consistency of using different an...

    Authors: Jinhui Ma, Lehana Thabane, Janusz Kaczorowski, Larry Chambers, Lisa Dolovich, Tina Karwalajtys and Cheryl Levitt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:37
  17. In the last decade mobile telephone use has become more widespread among children. Concerns expressed about possible health risks have led to epidemiological studies investigating adverse health outcomes assoc...

    Authors: Imo Inyang, Geza Benke, Joseph Morrissey, Ray McKenzie and Michael Abramson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:36
  18. Reporting numbers needed to treat (NNT) improves interpretability of trial results. It is unusual that continuous outcomes are converted to numbers of individual responders to treatment (i.e., those who reach ...

    Authors: Robert Froud, Sandra Eldridge, Ranjit Lall and Martin Underwood
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:35
  19. In 1999 a four-level hierarchy of evidence was promoted by the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia. The primary purpose of this hierarchy was to assist with clinical practice guideline de...

    Authors: Tracy Merlin, Adele Weston and Rebecca Tooher
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:34
  20. It is often desirable to observe how a disease progresses over time in individual patients, rather than graphing group averages; and since multiple outcomes are typically recorded on each patient, it would be ...

    Authors: Stanley E Lazic, Sarah L Mason, Andrew W Michell and Roger A Barker
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:32
  21. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) allow systematic assessment of preferences by asking respondents to choose between scenarios. We conducted a labelled discrete choice experiment with realistic choices to inv...

    Authors: Michelle E Kruijshaar, Marie-Louise Essink-Bot, Bas Donkers, Caspar WN Looman, Peter D Siersema and Ewout W Steyerberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:31
  22. The problem of silent multiple comparisons is one of the most difficult statistical problems faced by scientists. It is a particular problem for investigating a one-off cancer cluster reported to a health depa...

    Authors: Michael D Coory, Rachael A Wills and Adrian G Barnett
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:30
  23. Systematic review and meta-analysis currently underpin much of evidence-based medicine. Such methodologies bring order to previous research, but future research planning remains relatively incoherent and ineffici...

    Authors: Alexander J Sutton, Nicola J Cooper and David R Jones
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:29
  24. Health-related quality of life is a topic of current interest. This paper considers a randomized phase III study of radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy (docetaxel) versus radiation therapy alone in ...

    Authors: Nina Gunnes, Taral G Seierstad, Steinar Aamdal, Paal F Brunsvig, Anne-Birgitte Jacobsen, Stein Sundstrøm and Odd O Aalen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:28
  25. Physical activity is being studied as a breast cancer prevention strategy. Women at risk of breast cancer report interest in lifestyle modification, but recruitment to randomized physical activity intervention...

    Authors: Larissa A Korde, Amy Micheli, Ashley W Smith, David Venzon, Sheila A Prindiville, Bart Drinkard, Nancy Sebring, Marcia D Smith, Jo Anne Zujewski and Jennifer Eng-Wong
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:27
  26. Many recently published clinical studies report sex-specific data. This information may help to improve clinical decision-making for both sexes, but it is not easily accessible in MEDLINE. The aim of this proj...

    Authors: Clara J Moerman, Rikie Deurenberg and Joke A Haafkens
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:25
  27. Stents are commonly used to treat patients with coronary artery disease. However, the quality of reporting internal and external validity data in published reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ste...

    Authors: Morgane Ethgen, lsabelle Boutron, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Carine Roy and Philippe Ravaud
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:24
  28. Data from scientific literature show that about 63% of abstracts presented at biomedical conferences will be published in full. Some studies have indicated that full publication is associated with the directio...

    Authors: Simona Vecchi, Valeria Belleudi, Laura Amato, Marina Davoli and Carlo A Perucci
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:23
  29. In clinical practice a diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical history, physical examination and additional diagnostic tests. At present, studies on diagnostic research often report the accuracy of tes...

    Authors: Kimiko A Broeze, Brent C Opmeer, Lucas M Bachmann, Frank J Broekmans, Patrick MM Bossuyt, Sjors FPJ Coppus, Neil P Johnson, Khalid S Khan, Gerben ter Riet, Fulco van der Veen, Madelon van Wely and Ben WJ Mol
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:22
  30. Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2–3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians.

    Authors: Philip A Merriam, Trinidad L Tellez, Milagros C Rosal, Barbara C Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L Pagoto and Ira S Ockene
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:20
  31. Understanding participation in a prospective study is crucial to maintaining and improving retention rates. In 1990–92, following attempted blood donation at five blood centers, we enrolled 155 HTLV-I, 387 HTL...

    Authors: Deborah A DeVita, Mary C White, Xin Zhao, Zhanna Kaidarova and Edward L Murphy
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:19
  32. Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who a...

    Authors: Katja Petrowski, Hendrik Berth, Silke Schmidt, Jörg Schumacher, Andreas Hinz and Elmar Brähler
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:17
  33. Systematic reviews have developed into a powerful method for summarising and synthesising evidence. The rise in systematic reviews creates a methodological opportunity and associated challenges and this is see...

    Authors: Rebecca E Ryan, Caroline A Kaufman and Sophie J Hill
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:16
  34. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the methodology of online focus group discussions within the setting of paediatric oncology.

    Authors: Kiek Tates, Marieke Zwaanswijk, Roel Otten, Sandra van Dulmen, Peter M Hoogerbrugge, Willem A Kamps and Jozien M Bensing
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:15
  35. The feasibility of randomized trials often depends on successful patient recruitment. Although numerous recruitment barriers have been identified it is unclear which of them complicate recruitment most. Also, ...

    Authors: Anne Spaar, Martin Frey, Alexander Turk, Werner Karrer and Milo A Puhan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:14
  36. In this study we explored the challenges to establishing a community of practice (CoP) to address standards in general practice. We focused on the issue of improving referral letters which are the main form of...

    Authors: Moyez Jiwa, Kathleen Deas, Jackie Ross, Tim Shaw, Helen Wilcox and Katrina Spilsbury
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:13
  37. In neonatal trials of pre-term or low-birth-weight infants, twins may represent 10–20% of the study sample. Mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations are common approaches for handling correlat...

    Authors: Michele L Shaffer, Allen R Kunselman and Kristi L Watterberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:12
  38. Laser-Doppler imaging (LDI) of cutaneous blood flow is beginning to be used by burn surgeons to predict the healing time of burn wounds; predicted healing time is used to determine wound treatment as either dr...

    Authors: Rose D Baker, Christian Weinand, James C Jeng, Henk Hoeksema, Stan Monstrey, Sarah A Pape, Robert Spence and David Wilson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:11
  39. Multivariate analysis of interval censored event data based on classical likelihood methods is notoriously cumbersome. Likelihood inference for models which additionally include random effects are not availabl...

    Authors: Volkmar Henschel, Jutta Engel, Dieter Hölzel and Ulrich Mansmann
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:9
  40. Extraneous distractions may influence the flow of general practice consultations. This study piloted a methodology to examine the impact of interrupting general practitioners (GPs) while consulting actor-patie...

    Authors: Moyez Jiwa, Robert McKinley, Carolyn O'Shea, Hayley Arnet, Katrina Spilsbury and Marthe Smith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:8

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