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  1. In heart data mining and machine learning, dimension reduction is needed to remove multicollinearity. Meanwhile, it has been proven to improve the interpretation of the parameter model. In addition, dimension ...

    Authors: Rezzy Eko Caraka, Rung-Ching Chen, Su-Wen Huang, Shyue-Yow Chiou, Prana Ugiana Gio and Bens Pardamean
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:77

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:114

  2. Longitudinal studies are important to understand patterns of growth in children and limited in India. It is important to identify an approach for characterising growth trajectories to distinguish between child...

    Authors: Reka Karuppusami, Belavendra Antonisamy and Prasanna S. Premkumar
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:76
  3. The need to mitigate the volume of unplanned emergency department (ED) presentations is a priority for health systems globally. Current evidence on the incidence and risk factors associated with unplanned ED p...

    Authors: P. H. Dufton, M. F. Gerdtz, R. Jarden and M. Krishnasamy
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:75
  4. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of time-to-event outcomes are frequently published within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). However, these outcomes are handled differently across meta-an...

    Authors: Theodosia Salika, Rebecca M. Turner, David Fisher, Jayne F. Tierney and Ian R. White
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:73
  5. Systems approaches are currently being advocated and implemented to address complex challenges in Public Health. These approaches work by bringing multi-sectoral stakeholders together to develop a collective u...

    Authors: James Nobles, Jessica Wheeler, Kirsty Dunleavy-Harris, Richard Holmes, Alan Inman-Ward, Alexandra Potts, Jennifer Hall, Sabi Redwood, Russell Jago and Charlie Foster
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:72
  6. Novel screening tests used to detect a target condition are compared against either a reference standard or other existing screening methods. However, as it is not always possible to apply the reference standa...

    Authors: Emily Day, David Eldred-Evans, A. Toby Prevost, Hashim U. Ahmed and Francesca Fiorentino
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:70
  7. Adoption of innovations in the field of medicine is frequently hindered by a failure to recognize the condition targeted by the innovation. This is particularly true in cases where recognition requires integra...

    Authors: Meagan Bechel, Adam R. Pah, Stephen D. Persell, Curtis H. Weiss and Luís A. Nunes Amaral
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:69
  8. Longitudinal data analysis can improve our understanding of the influences on health trajectories across the life-course. There are a variety of statistical models which can be used, and their fitting and inte...

    Authors: Ahmed Elhakeem, Rachael A. Hughes, Kate Tilling, Diana L. Cousminer, Stefan A. Jackowski, Tim J. Cole, Alex S. F. Kwong, Zheyuan Li, Struan F. A. Grant, Adam D. G. Baxter-Jones, Babette S. Zemel and Deborah A. Lawlor
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:68
  9. Inconsistent responding is a type of invalid responding, which occurs on self-report surveys and threatens the reliability and validity of study results. This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of identi...

    Authors: Christina Schell, Alexandra Godinho and John A. Cunningham
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:67
  10. The literature on qualitative data analysis mostly concerns analyses pertaining to an individual research question and the organization of data within that research question. Few authors have written about the...

    Authors: Joanna E. M. Sale
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:66
  11. Recruitment into clinical trials is challenging and there is a lack of evidence on effective recruitment strategies. Personalisation of invitation letters is a potentially pragmatic and feasible way of increas...

    Authors: Ella Thiblin, Joanne Woodford, Mattias Öhman and Louise von Essen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:65
  12. With advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment, women with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) are living longer, increasing the number of patients receiving post-treatment follow-up care. Best-practice survivor...

    Authors: Devesh Oberoi, Cynthia Kwok, Yong Li, Cindy Railton, Susan Horsman, Kathleen Reynolds, Anil A. Joy, Karen Marie King, Sasha Michelle Lupichuk, Michael Speca, Nicole Culos-Reed, Linda E. Carlson and Janine Giese-Davis
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:64
  13. Online surveys have triggered a heated debate regarding their scientific validity. Many authors have adopted weighting methods to enhance the quality of online survey findings, while others did not find an adv...

    Authors: Chadia Haddad, Hala Sacre, Rony M. Zeenny, Aline Hajj, Marwan Akel, Katia Iskandar and Pascale Salameh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:63
  14. Recent advances in biotechnology enable the acquisition of high-dimensional data on individuals, posing challenges for prediction models which traditionally use covariates such as clinical patient characterist...

    Authors: Mariella Gregorich, Federico Melograna, Martina Sunqvist, Stefan Michiels, Kristel Van Steen and Georg Heinze
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:62
  15. Non-random non-response bias in surveys requires time-consuming, complicated, post-survey analyses. Our goal was to see if modifying cover letter information would prevent non-random non-response bias altogeth...

    Authors: Maureen Murdoch, Barbara A. Clothier, Timothy J. Beebe, Ann K. Bangerter and Siamak Noorbaloochi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:61
  16. To provide empirically based guidance for substituting partner number categories in large MSM surveys with mean numbers of sexual and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) partners in a secondary analysis of surve...

    Authors: Ana Mendez-Lopez, Ford Hickson, Klaus Jansen, Nathan Lachowsky, Fiona Burns, Cinta Folch, Annie Velter, Peter Weatherburn, Ulrich Marcus, Ursula von Rüden, Massimo Mirandola, Lorenzo Gios, Jamie Frankis, David J. Brennan and Axel J. Schmidt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:59
  17. Causal inference has seen an increasing popularity in medical research. Estimation of causal effects from observational data allows to draw conclusions from data when randomized controlled trials cannot be con...

    Authors: Riko Kelter
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:58
  18. The healthy context paradox, originally described with respect to school-level bullying interventions, refers to the generation of differences in mental wellbeing amongst those who continue to experience bully...

    Authors: G. J. Melendez-Torres, Emily Warren, Obioha C Ukoumunne, Russell Viner and Chris Bonell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:57
  19. The classical linear model is widely used in the analysis of clinical trials with continuous outcomes. However, required model assumptions are frequently not met, resulting in estimates of treatment effect tha...

    Authors: Gillian Z. Heller, Kristy P. Robledo and Ian C. Marschner
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:56
  20. The heart rate (HR) method enables estimating oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in physical activities. However, there is a paucity in knowledge about the interchangeability of this method when applied to cycling, walking and...

    Authors: Karin Sofia Elisabeth Olsson, Hans Rosdahl and Peter Schantz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:55
  21. Machine learning (ML) holds the promise of becoming an essential tool for utilising the increasing amount of clinical data available for analysis and clinical decision support. However, the lack of trust in th...

    Authors: Eline Stenwig, Giampiero Salvi, Pierluigi Salvo Rossi and Nils Kristian Skjærvold
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:53
  22. For assessing cost-effectiveness, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) organisations may use primary economic evaluations (P-HEs) or Systematic Reviews of Health Economic evaluations (SR-HEs). A prerequisite for...

    Authors: Alina Weise, Roland Brian Büchter, Dawid Pieper and Tim Mathes
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:52
  23. The Bland-Altman plot with the limits of agreement has been widely used as an absolute index for assessing test-retest reliability or reproducibility between two measurements. We have observed that in the sett...

    Authors: Jongphil Kim and Ji-Hyun Lee
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:51
  24. Clinical trial investigators may need to evaluate treatment effects in a specific subgroup (or subgroups) of participants in addition to reporting results of the entire study population. Such subgroups lack po...

    Authors: Rebecca M. Turner, Anna Turkova, Cecilia L. Moore, Alasdair Bamford, Moherndran Archary, Linda N. Barlow-Mosha, Mark F. Cotton, Tim R. Cressey, Elizabeth Kaudha, Abbas Lugemwa, Hermione Lyall, Hilda A. Mujuru, Veronica Mulenga, Victor Musiime, Pablo Rojo, Gareth Tudor-Williams…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:49
  25. The statistical evaluation of aggregation functions for trauma grades, such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS), is largely based on measurements of their Pearson product-moment correlation with mortality. Howe...

    Authors: Nassim Dehouche
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:48
  26. Network meta-analysis estimates all relative effects between competing treatments and can produce a treatment hierarchy from the most to the least desirable option according to a health outcome. While about ha...

    Authors: Theodoros Papakonstantinou, Georgia Salanti, Dimitris Mavridis, Gerta Rücker, Guido Schwarzer and Adriani Nikolakopoulou
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:47
  27. Two-stage least square [2SLS] and two-stage residual inclusion [2SRI] are popularly used instrumental variable (IV) methods to address medication nonadherence in pragmatic trials with point treatment settings....

    Authors: Md. Belal Hossain, Lucy Mosquera and Mohammad Ehsanul Karim
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:46
  28. Attrition in cohort studies challenges causal inference. Although inverse probability weighting (IPW) has been proposed to handle attrition in association analyses, its relevance has been little studied in thi...

    Authors: Marie-Astrid Metten, Nathalie Costet, Luc Multigner, Jean-François Viel and Guillaume Chauvet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:45
  29. Prospective cohort studies are challenging to deliver, with one of the main difficulties lying in retention of participants. The need to socially distance during the COVID-19 pandemic has added to this challen...

    Authors: Emer Gates, Barnaby Hole, Samantha Hayward, Nicholas C. Chesnaye, Yvette Meuleman, Friedo W. Dekker, Marie Evans, Olof Heimburger, Claudia Torino, Gaetana Porto, Maciej Szymczak, Christiane Drechsler, Christoph Wanner, Kitty J. Jager, Paul Roderick and Fergus Caskey
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:44
  30. Although the prevalence of hypertension is high in older adults, clinical trial recruitment is a challenge. Our main aim was to describe the HAEL Study recruitment methods and yield rates. The secondary object...

    Authors: Cíntia E. Botton, Lucas P. Santos, Bruna G. Moraes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, Maria Laura B. Gomes, Eurico N. Wilhelm, Stephanie S. Pinto and Daniel Umpierre
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:42
  31. Statistical issues present while evaluating a diagnostic procedure for breast cancer are non rare but often ignored, leading to biased results. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the fine needle a...

    Authors: Carolla El Chamieh, Philippe Vielh and Sylvie Chevret
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:40
  32. Opinions and practices vary around the issue of performing multiple statistical tests in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We carried out a study to collate information about opinions and practices using a ...

    Authors: Katie Pike, Barnaby C. Reeves and Chris A. Rogers
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:39
  33. Basal thumb joint osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful condition of the hand often treated surgically if non-operative care does not provide sufficient pain relief. Many instruments are available to measure...

    Authors: Jenni Pajari, Jarkko Jokihaara, Eero Waris, Simo Taimela, Teppo L. N. Järvinen, Rachelle Buchbinder and Teemu Karjalainen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:37
  34. To pursue high quality research, successful participant recruitment is essential, but recruitment rates are often low. This is specifically true in target populations with impairments, for instance, among stro...

    Authors: Emma Carlstedt, Eva Månsson Lexell, Agneta Ståhl, Arne Lindgren and Susanne Iwarsson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:36
  35. We investigated whether we could use influenza data to develop prediction models for COVID-19 to increase the speed at which prediction models can reliably be developed and validated early in a pandemic. We de...

    Authors: Ross D. Williams, Aniek F. Markus, Cynthia Yang, Talita Duarte-Salles, Scott L. DuVall, Thomas Falconer, Jitendra Jonnagaddala, Chungsoo Kim, Yeunsook Rho, Andrew E. Williams, Amanda Alberga Machado, Min Ho An, María Aragón, Carlos Areia, Edward Burn, Young Hwa Choi…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:35
  36. The exchange of knowledge between statisticians developing new methodology and clinicians, reviewers or authors applying them is fundamental. This is specifically true for clinical trials with time-to-event en...

    Authors: Ina Dormuth, Tiantian Liu, Jin Xu, Menggang Yu, Markus Pauly and Marc Ditzhaus
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:34
  37. The scientific community has classified COVID-19 as the worst pandemic in human history. The damage caused by the new disease was direct (e.g., deaths) and indirect (e.g., closure of economic activities). With...

    Authors: Alessandro Rovetta and Lucia Castaldo
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:33
  38. The interplay of host, agent, and environment implicated in traumatic brain injury (TBI) events is difficult to account for in hypothesis-driven research. Data-driven analysis of injury data can enable insight...

    Authors: Tatyana Mollayeva, Andrew Tran, Vincy Chan, Angela Colantonio and Michael D. Escobar
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:30
  39. Authors: Beth Ann Grifn, Megan S. Schuler, Elizabeth A. Stuart, Stephen Patrick, Elizabeth McNeer, Rosanna Smart, David Powell, Bradley D. Stein, Terry L. Schell and Rosalie Liccardo Pacula
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:29

    The original article was published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:279

  40. Although frequentist paradigm has been the predominant approach to clinical studies for decades, some limitations associated with the frequentist null hypothesis significance testing have been recognized. Baye...

    Authors: Fengming Tang, Christie A. Befort, Jo Wick and Byron J. Gajewski
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:28
  41. Network meta-analysis (NMA) has been increasingly adopted worldwide by Cochrane reviews, guideline developers and decision-making bodies to identify optimal treatment choices. However, NMA results are often pr...

    Authors: Yiqiao Xin, Clareece R. Nevill, Janion Nevill, Ewan Gray, Nicola J. Cooper, Naomi Bradbury and Alex J. Sutton
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:26

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