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  1. The Cox model relies on the proportional hazards (PH) assumption, implying that the factors investigated have a constant impact on the hazard - or risk - over time. We emphasize the importance of this assumpti...

    Authors: Carine A Bellera, Gaëtan MacGrogan, Marc Debled, Christine Tunon de Lara, Véronique Brouste and Simone Mathoulin-Pélissier
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:20
  2. This article describes the data mining analysis of a clinical exposure study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 nonsmokers. The analysis focused on developing models for four biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH): w...

    Authors: John H Warner, Qiwei Liang, Mohamadi Sarkar, Paul E Mendes and Hans J Roethig
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:19
  3. Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted t...

    Authors: Laurent Coudeville, Fabrice Bailleux, Benjamin Riche, Françoise Megas, Philippe Andre and René Ecochard
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:18
  4. The success of a human intervention trial depends upon the ability to recruit eligible volunteers. Many trials fail because of unrealistic recruitment targets and flawed recruitment strategies. In order to pre...

    Authors: Sarah E Forster, Laura Jones, John M Saxton, Daniel J Flower, Gemma Foulds, Hilary J Powers, Stuart G Parker, A Graham Pockley and Elizabeth A Williams
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:17
  5. Linear mixed effects models (LMMs) are a common approach for analyzing longitudinal data in a variety of settings. Although LMMs may be applied to complex data structures, such as settings where mediators are ...

    Authors: Emily A Blood, Howard Cabral, Timothy Heeren and Debbie M Cheng
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:16
  6. Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique methodological and ethical challenges. Researchers conducting systematic reviews of CRTs (e.g., addressing methodological or ethical issues) require efficient el...

    Authors: Monica Taljaard, Jessie McGowan, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Jamie C Brehaut, Andrew McRae, Martin P Eccles and Allan Donner
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:15
  7. Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of...

    Authors: Markus Kalisch, Bernd AG Fellinghauer, Eva Grill, Marloes H Maathuis, Ulrich Mansmann, Peter Bühlmann and Gerold Stucki
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:14
  8. Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect...

    Authors: Linn Gjersing, John RM Caplehorn and Thomas Clausen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:13
  9. For the purposes of our research programme we needed a simple, reliable and validated method for allowing choice of a color in response to a series of questions. On reviewing the literature no such instrument ...

    Authors: Helen R Carruthers, Julie Morris, Nicholas Tarrier and Peter J Whorwell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:12
  10. Experts recommend formulating a structured research question to guide the research design. However, the basis for this recommendation has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine if a ...

    Authors: Lorena P Rios, Chenglin Ye and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:11
  11. Primary prevention programmes are of increasing importance to reduce the impact of chronic diseases on the individual, institutional and societal level. However, most initiatives that develop and implement pri...

    Authors: Iris Pigeot, Stefaan De Henauw, Ronja Foraita, Ingeborg Jahn and Wolfgang Ahrens
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:10
  12. There is an increasing trend towards lower participation in questionnaire surveys. This reduces representativeness, increases costs and introduces particular challenges to longitudinal surveys, as researchers ...

    Authors: Marion Henderson, Daniel Wight, Catherine Nixon and Graham Hart
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:9
  13. Sampling in the absence of accurate or comprehensive information routinely poses logistical, ethical, and resource allocation challenges in social science, clinical, epidemiological, health service and populat...

    Authors: Melanie J Rock
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:8
  14. There is no consensus on the most appropriate approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies. Therefore a simulation study was performed to assess the effects of different missin...

    Authors: Andrea Marshall, Douglas G Altman, Patrick Royston and Roger L Holder
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:7
  15. African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to descri...

    Authors: Babalola Faseru, Lisa S Cox, Carrie A Bronars, Isaac Opole, Gregory A Reed, Matthew S Mayo, Jasjit S Ahluwalia and Kolawole S Okuyemi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:6
  16. Research into migration and health is often confronted with methodological challenges related to the identification of migrants in various settings. Furthermore, it is often difficult to reach an acceptable le...

    Authors: Maria Kristiansen, Amani Hassani and Allan Krasnik
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:4
  17. Cancer screening reduces cancer mortality when early detection allows successful treatment of otherwise fatal disease. There are a variety of trial designs used to find the best screening test. In a series scr...

    Authors: Brandy M Ringham, Todd A Alonzo, Gary K Grunwald and Deborah H Glueck
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:3
  18. Epidemiologic studies of periodontal infection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease often use clinical periodontal measures as a surrogate for the underlying bacterial exposure of interest. There are cu...

    Authors: Ryan T Demmer, Panos N Papapanou, David R Jacobs Jr and Moïse Desvarieux
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:2
  19. Pilot studies for phase III trials - which are comparative randomized trials designed to provide preliminary evidence on the clinical efficacy of a drug or intervention - are routinely performed in many clinic...

    Authors: Lehana Thabane, Jinhui Ma, Rong Chu, Ji Cheng, Afisi Ismaila, Lorena P Rios, Reid Robson, Marroon Thabane, Lora Giangregorio and Charles H Goldsmith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:1

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2023 23:59

  20. The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a si...

    Authors: Philip A Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C Olendzki, Kristin L Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S Ockene and Sherry L Pagoto
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:87
  21. There is increasing awareness that meta-analyses require a sufficiently large information size to detect or reject an anticipated intervention effect. The required information size in a meta-analysis may be ca...

    Authors: Jørn Wetterslev, Kristian Thorlund, Jesper Brok and Christian Gluud
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:86
  22. In biometric practice, researchers often apply a large number of different methods in a "trial-and-error" strategy to get as much as possible out of their data and, due to publication pressure or pressure from...

    Authors: Anne-Laure Boulesteix and Carolin Strobl
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:85
  23. The data from longitudinal complex surveys based on multi-stage sampling designs contain cross-sectional dependencies among units due to clustered nature of the data and within-subject dependencies due to repe...

    Authors: Punam Pahwa and Chandima P Karunanayake
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:84
  24. Development of three classification trees (CT) based on the CART (Classification and Regression Trees), CHAID (Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection) and C4.5 methodologies for the calculation of probability...

    Authors: Javier Trujillano, Mariona Badia, Luis Serviá, Jaume March and Angel Rodriguez-Pozo
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:83
  25. Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitat...

    Authors: Alicia O'Cathain, Jon Nicholl and Elizabeth Murphy
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:82
  26. US Latinos have greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes), uncontrolled diabetes and diabetes co-morbidities compared to non-Latino Whites. They also have lower literacy levels and are more likely to li...

    Authors: Milagros C Rosal, Mary Jo White, Angela Restrepo, Barbara Olendzki, Jeffrey Scavron, Elise Sinagra, Ira S Ockene, Michael Thompson, Stephenie C Lemon, Lucy M Candib and George Reed
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:81
  27. Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new...

    Authors: Byron C Wallace, Christopher H Schmid, Joseph Lau and Thomas A Trikalinos
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:80
  28. The validity of research synthesis is threatened if published studies comprise a biased selection of all studies that have been conducted. We conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the strength and consistency...

    Authors: Fujian Song, Sheetal Parekh-Bhurke, Lee Hooper, Yoon K Loke, Jon J Ryder, Alex J Sutton, Caroline B Hing and Ian Harvey
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:79
  29. Randomised, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide evidence demonstrating safe, effective interventions that reduce falls and fractures in the elderly. The quality of a clinical trial is dependent on ...

    Authors: Kerrie M Sanders, Amanda L Stuart, Elizabeth N Merriman, Meaghan L Read, Mark A Kotowicz, Doris Young, Roderick Taylor, Ian Blair-Holt, Alistair G Mander and Geoffrey C Nicholson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:78
  30. A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women s...

    Authors: Juergen C Dinger, Kristina Bardenheuer and Anita Assmann
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:77
  31. Collection of buccal cells from saliva for DNA extraction offers a less invasive and convenient alternative to venipuncture blood collection that may increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies. Ho...

    Authors: Parveen Bhatti, Diane Kampa, Bruce H Alexander, Christopher McClure, Danny Ringer, Michele M Doody and Alice J Sigurdson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:76
  32. In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of ill health. Evaluation of malaria interventions, such as drugs and vaccines depends on clinical definition of the disease, which is ...

    Authors: Bruno P Mmbando, John P Lusingu, Lasse S Vestergaard, Martha M Lemnge, Thor G Theander and Thomas H Scheike
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:75
  33. Diagnostic images are often assessed for clinical outcomes using subjective methods, which are limited by the skill of the reviewer. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithms that assist reviewers in their dec...

    Authors: Alison G Abraham, Donald D Duncan, Stephen J Gange and Sheila West
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:74
  34. Bivariate random effects meta-analysis of diagnostic tests is becoming a well established approach when studies present one two-by-two table or one pair of sensitivity and specificity. When studies present mul...

    Authors: Taye H Hamza, Lidia R Arends, Hans C van Houwelingen and Theo Stijnen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:73
  35. Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biosp...

    Authors: Denise M Nishita, Lisa M Jack, Mary McElroy, Jennifer B McClure, Julie Richards, Gary E Swan and Andrew W Bergen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:71
  36. Selecting patient cohorts is a critical, iterative, and often time-consuming aspect of studies involving human subjects; informatics tools for helping streamline the process have been identified as important i...

    Authors: Vikrant G Deshmukh, Stéphane M Meystre and Joyce A Mitchell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:70
  37. Meeting recruitment goals is challenging for many clinical trials conducted in primary care populations. Little is known about how the use of different recruitment strategies affects the types of individuals c...

    Authors: Karen J Sherman, Rene J Hawkes, Laura Ichikawa, Daniel C Cherkin, Richard A Deyo, Andrew L Avins and Partap S Khalsa
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:69
  38. Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial growth in the body of literature on frailty in older persons. However, there is no consensus on its definition or the criteria used to identify frailty. ...

    Authors: Sathya Karunananthan, Christina Wolfson, Howard Bergman, François Béland and David B Hogan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:68
  39. Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to i...

    Authors: Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe, Katsuhiko Omoe and Nobuhiko Okabe
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:67
  40. Due to early colonoscopy for some participants, interval-censored observations can be introduced into the data of a colorectal polyp prevention trial. The censoring could be dependent of risk of recurrence if ...

    Authors: Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Qi Long and David S Alberts
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:66
  41. Recruiting to primary care studies is complex. With the current drive to increase numbers of patients involved in primary care studies, we need to know more about successful recruitment approaches. There is li...

    Authors: Jane V Dyas, Tanefa Apekey, Michelle Tilling and A Niroshan Siriwardena
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:65
  42. Multiple regression models are used in a wide range of scientific disciplines and automated model selection procedures are frequently used to identify independent predictors. However, determination of relative...

    Authors: Joseph Beyene, Eshetu G Atenafu, Jemila S Hamid, Teresa To and Lillian Sung
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:64
  43. Epidemiological and clinical studies, often including anthropometric measures, have established obesity as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Appropriate cut-off values for anthropomet...

    Authors: Jens Klotsche, Dietmar Ferger, Lars Pieper, Jürgen Rehm and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:63
  44. Accurate estimates of incidence and prevalence of the disease is a vital step toward appropriate interventions for chronic disease like diabetes. A growing body of scientific literature is now available on pro...

    Authors: Shabnam Asghari, Josiane Courteau, André C Carpentier and Alain Vanasse
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:62
  45. This article describes the challenges a research team experienced recruiting physicians within a randomised controlled trial about leg ulcer care that seeks to foster the cooperation between the medical and nu...

    Authors: Oliver R Herber, Wilfried Schnepp and Monika A Rieger
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:61
  46. Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities....

    Authors: Shaouli Shahid, Dawn Bessarab, Peter Howat and Sandra C Thompson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:60
  47. Accurate measures of physical activity are highly needed. We evaluated the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the self-report Activity Questionnaire for Adults and Adolescents (AQuAA). The AQuAA...

    Authors: Mai JM Chinapaw, Sander M Slootmaker, Albertine J Schuit, Mariska van Zuidam and Willem van Mechelen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:58

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