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Table 5 Association between a structured research question and overall reporting quality

From: Association between framing of the research question using the PICOT format and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials

Independent Variable Median Q1-Q3 Multivariable Model Univariate Models
  OQS1a   IRR 95% CI p value IRR 95% CI p value
Structured RQ         
Not complete PICOc 9 7 - 10 1 - - 1 - -
Complete PICO 10 9 - 11 1.095 1.059 - 1.132 < 0.0001 1.104 1.084 - 1.125 < 0.0001
Funding Source         
Othersc 9 8 - 11 1 - - 1 - -
Completely funded by industry 10 9 - 10 1.256 1.006 - 1.046 0.0113 1.074 0.986 - 1.171 0.1027
Journal of Publication         
Othersc 9 7 - 10 1 - - 1 - -
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 9 8 - 11 1.039 0.962 - 1.121 0.3325 1.074 0.986 - 1.171 0.1027
Sample Size 9 8 - 10 1.066d 1.012 - 1.123 0.0169 1.095 1.011 - 1.185 0.0250
  1. Use of a structured RQ is defined as the reporting of complete PICO
  2. Abbreviations: OQS, Overall quality score; Q1, quartile 1; Q3, quartile 3; IRR, incidence rate ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; GEE, generalized estimating equations; RCTs, randomized controlled trials.
  3. a Maximum possible score = 14
  4. b The value is an expression of the change in the average of the OQS due to one unit increase in PICOT score.
  5. c Reference category
  6. d The sample size variable was log(10) transformed. The value is an expression of the change in the average of the OQS due to one unit increase in sample size in the log scale.