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  1. After activation of the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) in 2012, hospitals nationwide experimented broadly with the implementation of Transitional Care (TC) strategies to reduce hospital readmiss...

    Authors: Glen Mays, Jing Li, Jessica Miller Clouser, Gaixin Du, Arnold Stromberg, Brian Jack, Huong Q. Nguyen and Mark V. Williams

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:228

    Content type: Research

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  2. Data harmonization is a powerful method to equilibrate items in measures that evaluate the same underlying construct. There are multiple measures to evaluate dementia related behavioral symptoms. Pre-statistic...

    Authors: Diefei Chen, Eric Jutkowitz, Skylar L. Iosepovici, John C. Lin and Alden L. Gross

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:227

    Content type: Research

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  3. Mediation analysis methodology underwent many advancements throughout the years, with the most recent and important advancement being the development of causal mediation analysis based on the counterfactual fr...

    Authors: Judith J. M. Rijnhart, Sophia J. Lamp, Matthew J. Valente, David P. MacKinnon, Jos W. R. Twisk and Martijn W. Heymans

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research

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  4. There is a growing need for methods that acknowledge and successfully capture the dynamic interaction between context and implementation of complex interventions. Case study research has the potential to provi...

    Authors: Sara Paparini, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jamie Murdoch, Judith Green, Mark Petticrew, Trisha Greenhalgh and Sara E. Shaw

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Network meta-analysis (NMA) has attracted growing interest in evidence-based medicine. Consistency between different sources of evidence is fundamental to the reliability of the NMA results. The purpose of the...

    Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sofia Tsokani, Ian R. White, Guido Schwarzer, Gerta Rücker, Dimitris Mavridis, Julian P. T. Higgins and Georgia Salanti

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research

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  6. An increasing number of systematic reviews assessed the safety of surgical interventions over time. How well these systematic reviews were designed and conducted determines the reliability of evidence. In this...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Zhou, Linji Li, Lifeng Lin, Ke Ju, Joey S. W. Kwong and Chang Xu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:223

    Content type: Research

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  7. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), especially multicentric, with complex interventions are methodically challenging. Careful planning under everyday conditions in compliance with the relevant international q...

    Authors: Sabine Striebich, Elke Mattern, Theresa Oganowski, Rainhild Schäfers and Gertrud Ayerle

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:222

    Content type: Research

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  8. Statistical inference based on small datasets, commonly found in precision oncology, is subject to low power and high uncertainty. In these settings, drawing strong conclusions about future research utility is...

    Authors: Arjun Sondhi, Brian Segal, Jeremy Snider, Olivier Humblet and Margaret McCusker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:221

    Content type: Research

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  9. Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) are subjective outcomes of disease and/or treatment in clinical research. For effective evaluations of PROs, high response rates are crucial. This study assessed the impact of ...

    Authors: Olaf M. Neve, Peter Paul G. van Benthem, Anne M. Stiggelbout and Erik F. Hensen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:220

    Content type: Research article

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  10. With the dramatic increase in the pipeline for new sickle cell disease (SCD) therapies in recent years, the time is ripe to ensure a robust body of evidence is available for decision making by regulators, paye...

    Authors: Ellen Tambor, Matoya Robinson, Lewis Hsu, Hsing-Yuan Chang and Jennifer Al Naber

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:219

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Vascular prevention trials typically use dichotomous event outcomes although this may be inefficient statistically and gives no indication of event severity. We assessed whether ordinal outcomes would be more ...

    Authors: Lisa J. Woodhouse, Alan A. Montgomery, Jonathan Mant, Barry R. Davis, Ale Algra, Jean-Louis Mas, Jan A. Staessen, Lutgarde Thijs, Andrew Tonkin, Adrienne Kirby, Stuart J. Pocock, John Chalmers, Graeme J. Hankey, J. David Spence, Peter Sandercock, Hans-Christoph Diener…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:218

    Content type: Research

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  12. Th EQUATOR Network improves the quality and transparency in health research, primarily by promoting awareness and use of reporting guidelines. In 2018, the UK EQUATOR Centre launched

    Authors: Caroline Struthers, James Harwood, Jennifer Anne de Beyer, Paula Dhiman, Patricia Logullo and Michael Schlüssel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:217

    Content type: Research

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  13. Risk prediction models for time-to-event outcomes play a vital role in personalized decision-making. A patient’s biomarker values, such as medical lab results, are often measured over time but traditional pred...

    Authors: Kaci L Pickett, Krithika Suresh, Kristen R Campbell, Scott Davis and Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:216

    Content type: Research

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  14. Kruskal-Wallis H test from the bank of classical statistics tests is a well-known nonparametric alternative to a one-way analysis of variance. The test is extensively used in decision-making problems where one...

    Authors: Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani, Huma Shakeel, Wajiha Batool Awan, Maham Faheem and Muhammad Aslam

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:215

    Content type: Research

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  15. Case-crossover studies have been widely used in various fields including pharmacoepidemiology. Vines and Farrington indicated in 2001 that when within-subject exposure dependency exists, conditional logistic r...

    Authors: Kiyoshi Kubota, Thu-Lan Kelly, Tsugumichi Sato, Nicole Pratt, Elizabeth Roughead and Takuhiro Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:214

    Content type: Research

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  16. The external validity of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) refers to the extent to which the results of the RCT apply to the relevant, non-trial population and is impacted by its eligibility criteria, its ...

    Authors: Neil Thivalapill, Shahin Lockman, Kathleen Powis, Rebecca Zash, Jean Leidner, Gbolahan Ajibola, Mompati Mmalane, Joseph Makhema and Roger L. Shapiro

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:212

    Content type: Research

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  17. Disease surveillance of diabetes among youth has relied mainly upon manual chart review. However, increasingly available structured electronic health record (EHR) data have been shown to yield accurate determi...

    Authors: Kristin M. Lenoir, Lynne E. Wagenknecht, Jasmin Divers, Ramon Casanova, Dana Dabelea, Sharon Saydah, Catherine Pihoker, Angela D. Liese, Debra Standiford, Richard Hamman and Brian J. Wells

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:210

    Content type: Research

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  18. Recruitment to stroke clinical trials is challenging, but consumer registers can facilitate participation. Researchers need to understand the key factors that facilitate trial involvement and improve consumer ...

    Authors: Ishanka Weerasekara, Jasmine Baye, Meredith Burke, Gary Crowfoot, Gillian Mason, Rachael Peak, Dawn Simpson, Frederick Rohan Walker, Michael Nilsson, Michael Pollack and Coralie English

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research

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  19. In drug trials, clinical adverse events (AEs), concomitant medication and laboratory safety outcomes are repeatedly collected to support drug safety evidence. Despite the potential correlation of these outcome...

    Authors: Noel Patson, Mavuto Mukaka, Umberto D’Alessandro, Gertrude Chapotera, Victor Mwapasa, Don Mathanga, Lawrence Kazembe, Miriam K. Laufer and Tobias Chirwa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research

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  20. Network Meta-Analysis (NMA) is a key component of submissions to reimbursement agencies world-wide, especially when there is limited direct head-to-head evidence for multiple technologies from randomised contr...

    Authors: David A. Jenkins, Humaira Hussein, Reynaldo Martina, Pascale Dequen-O’Byrne, Keith R. Abrams and Sylwia Bujkiewicz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:207

    Content type: Research

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  21. Identifying strategies to optimize participation in health studies is one of the major concerns for researchers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different invitation strategies on p...

    Authors: Rezvan Rajabzadeh, Leila Janani and Seyed Abbas Motevalian

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research

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  22. Parent participation in children’s health interventions is insufficiently defined and measured. This project quantified parent participation to enable future examination with outcomes in an intervention focuse...

    Authors: Barbara Lohse and Leslie Cunningham-Sabo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:205

    Content type: Research

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  23. Many recent studies have investigated the hospital volume-outcome relationship in surgery. In some cases, the results have prompted the centralization of surgical activity. However, the methodologies and inter...

    Authors: Mathieu Levaillant, Romaric Marcilly, Lucie Levaillant, Philippe Michel, Jean-François Hamel-Broza, Benoît Vallet and Antoine Lamer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:204

    Content type: Research

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  24. Little guidance exists regarding how best to upskill and support those delivering complex healthcare interventions to ensure robust trial outcomes and implementation fidelity. Mentoring was provided to occupat...

    Authors: Kristelle Craven, Jain Holmes, Katie Powers, Sara Clarke, Rachel L. Cripps, Rebecca Lindley, Julie Phillips, Ruth Tyerman, Christopher McKevitt, David Clarke and Kathryn Radford

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:203

    Content type: Research

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  25. The purpose of this formative study was to assess barriers and facilitators to participation of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) patients in clinical research to solicit specific feedback on perceived acce...

    Authors: Andrew Asquith, Lauren Sava, Alexander B. Harris, Asa E. Radix, Dana J. Pardee and Sari L. Reisner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research article

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  26. To examine the value of a Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) design compared to a conventional randomized control trial (RCT) for telemedicine strategies to support titration of insulin th...

    Authors: Xiaoxi Yan, David B. Matchar, Nirmali Sivapragasam, John P. Ansah, Aastha Goel and Bibhas Chakraborty

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:200

    Content type: Research

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  27. For finite samples with binary outcomes penalized logistic regression such as ridge logistic regression has the potential of achieving smaller mean squared errors (MSE) of coefficients and predictions than max...

    Authors: Hana Šinkovec, Georg Heinze, Rok Blagus and Angelika Geroldinger

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:199

    Content type: Research

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  28. In many clinical applications, evolution of a longitudinal marker is censored by an event occurrence, and, symmetrically, event occurrence can be influenced by the longitudinal marker evolution. In such framew...

    Authors: Maéva Kyheng, Génia Babykina, Camille Ternynck, David Devos, Julien Labreuche and Alain Duhamel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research

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  29. To illustrate the challenges of estimating the effect of an exposure that is bounded by duration of follow-up on all-cause 28-day mortality, whilst simultaneously addressing missing data and time-varying covar...

    Authors: Rebecca Evans, Katie Pike, Alasdair MacGowan and Chris A. Rogers

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:197

    Content type: Research

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  30. Statistical model building requires selection of variables for a model depending on the model’s aim. In descriptive and explanatory models, a common recommendation often met in the literature is to include all...

    Authors: Lorena Hafermann, Heiko Becher, Carolin Herrmann, Nadja Klein, Georg Heinze and Geraldine Rauch

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:196

    Content type: Research

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  31. Extensive literature has shown an association of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) with adverse health outcomes; however, its ability to predict events or stratify risks is less known. Individuals with ment...

    Authors: Asmita Bhattarai, Gina Dimitropoulos, Brian Marriott, Jaime Paget, Andrew G. M. Bulloch, Suzanne C. Tough and Scott B. Patten

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:195

    Content type: Research

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  32. Advance care planning (ACP) enables people to define, discuss, and record preferences for treatment and care. Measures of ACP behavior are lacking in the Netherlands. We aimed to translate, culturally adapt an...

    Authors: Doris van der Smissen, Agnes van der Heide, Rebecca L. Sudore, Judith A. C. Rietjens and Ida J. Korfage

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:194

    Content type: Research

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  33. As a hot method in machine learning field, the forests approach is an attractive alternative approach to Cox model. Random survival forests (RSF) methodology is the most popular survival forests method, wherea...

    Authors: Yingxin Liu, Shiyu Zhou, Hongxia Wei and Shengli An

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:193

    Content type: Research

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  34. In follow-up studies, the occurrence of the intermediate event may influence the risk of the outcome of interest. Existing methods estimate the effect of the intermediate event by including a time-varying cova...

    Authors: Haixia Hu, Ling Wang, Chen Li, Wei Ge and Jielai Xia

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research

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  35. The lung allocation system in the U.S. prioritizes lung transplant candidates based on estimated pre- and post-transplant survival via the Lung Allocation Scores (LAS). However, these models do not account for...

    Authors: Erin M. Schnellinger, Edward Cantu III, Michael O. Harhay, Douglas E. Schaubel, Stephen E. Kimmel and Alisa J. Stephens-Shields

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:191

    Content type: Research

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  36. Observational studies are increasingly being used to provide supplementary evidence in addition to Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) because they provide a scale and diversity of participants and outcomes that ...

    Authors: Chinmay Belthangady, Will Stedden and Beau Norgeot

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research

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  37. Single group data present unique challenges for synthesises of evidence. Proportional meta-analysis is becoming an increasingly common technique employed for the synthesis of single group data. Proportional me...

    Authors: Timothy Hugh Barker, Celina Borges Migliavaca, Cinara Stein, Verônica Colpani, Maicon Falavigna, Edoardo Aromataris and Zachary Munn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:189

    Content type: Commentary

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  38. Patient-centered care is an essential component of health care quality. To achieve patient-centered care, health care authorities should have a clear definition and an applicable tool to measure the extent of ...

    Authors: Hana Hasan Webair, Tengku Alina Tengku Ismail, Shaiful Bahari Ismail, Azza Jameel Khaffaji, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain, Azidah Abdul Kadir, Rosediani Muhamad, Fatin Aina Abu Bakar, Nur Raihan Ismail and Nagwa Badri

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research

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  39. Fundamental to the success of clinical research that involves human participants is the quality of the data that is generated. To ensure data quality, clinical trials must comply with the Good Clinical Practic...

    Authors: Lauren Houston, Ping Yu, Allison Martin and Yasmine Probst

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research

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  40. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance across populations is a global threat to public health. Surveillance programs often monitor human and animal populations to evaluate trends of emergence in these popul...

    Authors: Min Zhang, Chong Wang and Annette M. O’Connor

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There are significant challenges associated with studies of people released from custodial settings, including loss to follow-up in the community. Interpretation of findings with consideration of differences b...

    Authors: Ashleigh Cara Stewart, Reece Cossar, Shelley Walker, Anna Lee Wilkinson, Brendan Quinn, Paul Dietze, Rebecca Winter, Amy Kirwan, Michael Curtis, James R. P. Ogloff, Stuart Kinner, Campbell Aitken, Tony Butler, Emma Woods and Mark Stoové

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research

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  42. Reviews of qualitative studies allow for deeper understanding of concepts and findings beyond the single qualitative studies. Concerns on study reporting quality led to the publication of the COREQ-guidelines ...

    Authors: Y. de Jong, E. M. van der Willik, J. Milders, C. G. N. Voorend, Rachael L. Morton, F. W. Dekker, Y. Meuleman and M. van Diepen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research

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  43. Systematic and scoping literature searches are increasingly resource intensive. We present the results of a scoping review which combines the use of a novel artificial-intelligence-(AI)-assisted Medline search...

    Authors: Jane Whelan, Mohammad Ghoniem, Nicolas Médoc, Mike Apicella and Ekkehard Beck

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:183

    Content type: Research

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  44. Healthcare decisions are ideally based on clinical trial results, published in study registries, as journal articles or summarized in secondary research articles. In this research project, we investigated the ...

    Authors: Anette Blümle, Katharina Wollmann, Karin Bischoff, Philipp Kapp, Szimonetta Lohner, Edris Nury, Kai Nitschke, Jasmin Zähringer, Gerta Rücker and Martin Schumacher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Variations in clinical practice contribute to negative outcomes for children with cancer. Research in this area is imperative to standardise practice, yet such research is challenging to undertake, and a signi...

    Authors: Natalie Bradford, Christine Cashion, Paula Condon, Shelley Rumble and Alison Bowers

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research

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