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  1. Initially, the Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool had a domain for “blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors”. In the 2011 tool, the assessment of blinding was split into two domains: blinding o...

    Authors: Ognjen Barcot, Matija Boric, Svjetlana Dosenovic and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Google Trends (GT) is being used as an epidemiological tool to study coronavirus disease (COVID-19) by identifying keywords in search trends that are predictive for the COVID-19 epidemiological burden. However...

    Authors: Kenichiro Sato, Tatsuo Mano, Atsushi Iwata and Tatsushi Toda

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research

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  3. Already at hospital admission, clinicians require simple tools to identify hospitalized COVID-19 patients at high risk of mortality. Such tools can significantly improve resource allocation and patient managem...

    Authors: Hamid Reza Marateb, Maja von Cube, Ramin Sami, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Marjan Mansourian, Babak Amra, Forogh Soltaninejad, Mojgan Mortazavi, Peyman Adibi, Nilufar Khademi, Nastaran Sadat Hosseini, Arash Toghyani, Razieh Hassannejad, Miquel Angel Mañanas, Harald Binder and Martin Wolkewitz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  4. A large multi-center survey was conducted to understand patients’ perspectives on biobank study participation with particular focus on racial and ethnic minorities. In order to enrich the study sample with rac...

    Authors: Aya A. Mitani, Nathaniel D. Mercaldo, Sebastien Haneuse and Jonathan S. Schildcrout

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Case–control studies based on pharmaco-epidemiological databases typically use decision rules to determine exposure status from information on dates of prescription redemptions, although this induces misclassi...

    Authors: Henrik Støvring, Anton Pottegård and Jesper Hallas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Various interacting and interdependent components comprise complex interventions. These components create difficulty in assessing the true impact of interventions designed to improve patient-centered outcomes....

    Authors: Maricela Cruz, Marco A. Pinto-Orellana, Daniel L. Gillen and Hernando C. Ombao

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:143

    Content type: Software

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  7. Standard practice for conducting systematic reviews (SRs) is time consuming and involves the study team screening hundreds or thousands of citations. As the volume of medical literature grows, the citation set...

    Authors: Katie O’Hearn, Cameron MacDonald, Anne Tsampalieros, Leo Kadota, Ryan Sandarage, Supun Kotteduwa Jayawarden, Michele Datko, John M. Reynolds, Thanh Bui, Shagufta Sultan, Margaret Sampson, Misty Pratt, Nick Barrowman, Nassr Nama, Matthew Page and James Dayre McNally

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:142

    Content type: Research

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  8. Children are more vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to complex changes in the body during the growth process and lack specific pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Causality and Avoidability assessment...

    Authors: Elisangela da Costa Lima, Thais de Barros Fernandes, Adair Freitas, Juliana Freire de Lima Sias, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot Land, Mariana Tschoepke Aires, Louise Bracken and Matthew Peak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research

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  9. Overviews often identify and synthesise a large number of systematic reviews on the same topic, which is likely to lead to overlap (i.e. duplication) in primary studies across the reviews. Using a primary stud...

    Authors: Carole Lunny, Dawid Pieper, Pierre Thabet and Salmaan Kanji

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Clustering of observations is a common phenomenon in epidemiological and clinical research. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of using multilevel analysis to account for such clustering, but in ...

    Authors: Georgia Ntani, Hazel Inskip, Clive Osmond and David Coggon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Hometime, the total number of days a person is living in the community (not in a healthcare institution) in a defined period of time after a hospitalization, is a patient-centred outcome metric increasingly us...

    Authors: Jessalyn K. Holodinsky, Amy Y. X. Yu, Moira K. Kapral and Peter C. Austin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Confounding bias is a common concern in epidemiological research. Its presence is often determined by comparing exposure effects between univariable- and multivariable regression models, using an arbitrary thr...

    Authors: Noah A. Schuster, Jos W. R. Twisk, Gerben ter Riet, Martijn W. Heymans and Judith J. M. Rijnhart

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research

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  13. Clustered data arise in research when patients are clustered within larger units. Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) and Generalised Linear Models (GLMM) can be used to provide marginal and cluster-specifi...

    Authors: Menelaos Pavlou, Gareth Ambler and Rumana Z. Omar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The Interrupted Time Series (ITS) is a quasi-experimental design commonly used in public health to evaluate the impact of interventions or exposures. Multiple statistical methods are available to analyse data ...

    Authors: Simon L. Turner, Amalia Karahalios, Andrew B. Forbes, Monica Taljaard, Jeremy M. Grimshaw and Joanne E. McKenzie

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:134

    Content type: Research

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  15. Developing effective implementation strategies requires adequate tracking and reporting on their application. Guidelines exist for defining and reporting on implementation strategy characteristics, but not for...

    Authors: Amber D. Haley, Byron J. Powell, Callie Walsh-Bailey, Molly Krancari, Inga Gruß, Christopher M. Shea, Arwen Bunce, Miguel Marino, Leah Frerichs, Kristen Hassmiller Lich and Rachel Gold

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research

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  16. Despite experimental evidence suggesting that pain sensitivity is not impaired by cognitive impairment, observational studies in nursing home residents have observed an inverse association between cognitive im...

    Authors: Anthony P. Nunes, Danni Zhao, William M. Jesdale and Kate L. Lapane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:132

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Most older adults prefer to continue living at home despite increasing care needs and demand for services. To aid in maintaining independence, integrated care models for community-dwelling older people are pro...

    Authors: Flaka Siqeca, Katrina Obas, Olivia Yip, Samuel Stenz, Penelope Vounatsou, Matthias Briel, Matthias Schwenkglenks, Carlos Quinto, Eva Blozik, Andreas Zeller, Leah L. Zullig, Sabina De Geest and Mieke Deschodt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research

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  18. Childhood obesity has increased remarkably in low and middle-income (LMIC) countries. Movement behaviors (physical activity, screen time, and sleep) are crucial in the development of overweight and obesity in ...

    Authors: Widjane Sheila Ferreira Goncalves, Rebecca Byrne, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Marcelo Tavares Viana and Stewart G. Trost

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research

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  19. Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) are standardized questionnaires used to measure subjective outcomes such as quality of life in healthcare. They are considered paramount to assess the results of therapeutic in...

    Authors: Antoine Vanier, Véronique Sébille, Myriam Blanchin and Jean-Benoit Hardouin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Kidney graft failure risk prediction models assist evidence-based medical decision-making in clinical practice. Our objective was to develop and validate statistical and machine learning predictive models to p...

    Authors: Sameera Senanayake, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Helen Healy, Nicholas Graves, Keshwar Baboolal, Matthew P. Sypek and Adrian Barnett

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research

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  21. Mortality is a key component of the natural history of COVID-19 infection. Surveillance data on COVID-19 deaths and case diagnoses are widely available in the public domain, but they are not used to model time...

    Authors: Ian C. Marschner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research

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  22. Q-methodology is an approach to studying complex issues of human ‘subjectivity’. Although this approach was developed in the early twentieth century, the value of Q-methodology in healthcare was not recognised...

    Authors: Kate Churruca, Kristiana Ludlow, Wendy Wu, Kate Gibbons, Hoa Mi Nguyen, Louise A. Ellis and Jeffrey Braithwaite

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research

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  23. Mortality modelling in the critical care paradigm traditionally uses logistic regression, despite the availability of estimators commonly used in alternate disciplines. Little attention has been paid to covari...

    Authors: John L. Moran, John D. Santamaria and Graeme J. Duke

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:124

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Due to clinical and methodological diversity, clinical studies included in meta-analyses often differ in ways that lead to differences in treatment effects across studies. Meta-regression analysis is generally...

    Authors: Michael Geissbühler, Cesar A. Hincapié, Soheila Aghlmandi, Marcel Zwahlen, Peter Jüni and Bruno R. da Costa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:123

    Content type: Research

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  25. Attrition is a major obstacle for lifestyle interventions sustained for the medium-to-long term and can have significant consequences on the internal validity of a trial. When the degree of attrition differs b...

    Authors: Bevens W, Shoushtari A, Jelinek P, Jelinek GA and Weiland TJ

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:122

    Content type: Research

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  26. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Generic-30 (Rehabilitation) Set is a tool used to assess the functioning of a clinical population in rehabilitation. The ICF Generi...

    Authors: Yuki Senju, Masahiko Mukaino, Birgit Prodinger, Melissa Selb, Yuki Okouchi, Kouji Mizutani, Megumi Suzuki, Shin Yamada, Shin-Ichi Izumi, Shigeru Sonoda, Yohei Otaka, Eiichi Saitoh and Gerold Stucki

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:121

    Content type: Research

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  27. Pandemic events often trigger a surge of clinical trial activity aimed at rapidly evaluating therapeutic or preventative interventions. Ensuring rapid public access to the complete and unbiased trial record is...

    Authors: Christopher W. Jones, Amanda C. Adams, Elizabeth Murphy, Rachel P. King, Benjamin Saracco, Karen R. Stesis, Susan Cavanaugh, Brian W. Roberts and Timothy F. Platts-Mills

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Data-sharing policies in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) should have an evaluation component. The main objective of this case–control study was to assess the impact of published re-uses of RCT data in terms ...

    Authors: N. Anthony, C. Pellen, C. Ohmann, D. Moher and F. Naudet

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:119

    Content type: Research

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  29. Loss to follow-up is a major challenge for very preterm (VPT) cohorts; attrition is associated with social disadvantage and parents with impaired children may participate less in research. We investigated the ...

    Authors: Aurélie Piedvache, Stef van Buuren, Henrique Barros, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Elizabeth Draper and Jennifer Zeitlin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In the last decade Open Science principles have been successfully advocated for and are being slowly adopted in different research communities. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic many publishers and research...

    Authors: Lonni Besançon, Nathan Peiffer-Smadja, Corentin Segalas, Haiting Jiang, Paola Masuzzo, Cooper Smout, Eric Billy, Maxime Deforet and Clémence Leyrat

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:117

    Content type: Commentary

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  31. We hypothesized that monitoring the volume of activity and overall performance indicators is not sufficient to understand the underlying differences between emergency departments. We aimed to understand the un...

    Authors: Marine Demarquet, Laurie Fraticelli, Julie Freyssenge, Clément Claustre, Mikaël Martinez, Jonathan Duchenne, Carlos El Khoury, Abdesslam Redjaline and Karim Tazarourte

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research

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  32. The monitoring and evaluation of public health programs based on traditional face-to-face interviews in hard-to-reach and unstable regions present many challenges. Mobile phone-based methods are considered to ...

    Authors: Xiaomeng Chen, Diwakar Mohan, Abdoulaye Maïga, Emily Frost, Djeneba Coulibaly, Luay Basil, Birahim Yaguemar Gueye, Mariam Traore Guindo, Assa Sidibé Keita, Haoua Dembelé Keita and Melissa A. Marx

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Use of real world data (RWD) from non-randomised studies (e.g. single-arm studies) is increasingly being explored to overcome issues associated with data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We aimed to c...

    Authors: Janharpreet Singh, Keith R. Abrams and Sylwia Bujkiewicz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research

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  34. In a star-shaped network, pairwise comparisons link treatments with a reference treatment (often placebo or standard care), but not with each other. Thus, comparisons between non-reference treatments rely on i...

    Authors: Jeong-Hwa Yoon, Sofia Dias and Seokyung Hahn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:113

    Content type: Technical advance

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  35. Neighbourhood is a complex structure but of high relevance for health. Its operationalisation remains however a challenge.The aim of this work is to present a new application of the use of semi-variograms as a...

    Authors: Odile Sauzet, Janne H. Breiding, Kim A. Zolitschka, Jürgen Breckenkamp and Oliver Razum

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:112

    Content type: Research

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  36. Diagnostic accuracy studies aim to examine the diagnostic accuracy of a new experimental test, but do not address the actual merit of the resulting diagnostic information to a patient in clinical practice. In ...

    Authors: Amra Hot, Patrick M. Bossuyt, Oke Gerke, Simone Wahl, Werner Vach and Antonia Zapf

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:110

    Content type: Research

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  37. Cardinality matching (CM), a novel matching technique, finds the largest matched sample meeting prespecified balance criteria thereby overcoming limitations of propensity score matching (PSM) associated with l...

    Authors: Stephen P. Fortin, Stephen S Johnston and Martijn J Schuemie

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  38. PR loss in ER+/HER2- breast cancer indicates worse prognosis and insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy, while the mechanisms of PR loss in ER+/HER2- breast cancer remain unrevealed.

    Authors: Taobo Hu, Yan Chen, Yiqiang Liu, Danhua Zhang, Jiankang Pan and Mengping Long

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research

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  39. Sparse relative effectiveness evidence is a frequent problem in Health Technology Assessment (HTA). Where evidence directly pertaining to the decision problem is sparse, it may be feasible to expand the eviden...

    Authors: Georgios F. Nikolaidis, Beth Woods, Stephen Palmer and Marta O. Soares

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  40. A debilitating late effect for childhood cancer survivors (CCS) is cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors of fatigue in this population. Here we describe the method...

    Authors: Adriaan Penson, Sylvia van Deuren, Ewald Bronkhorst, Ellen Keizer, Tom Heskes, Marieke J. H. Coenen, Judith G. M. Rosmalen, Wim J. E. Tissing, Helena J. H. van der Pal, Andrica C. H. de Vries, Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Sebastian Neggers, Birgitta A. B. Versluys, Marloes Louwerens, Margriet van der Heiden-van der Loo, Saskia M. F. Pluijm…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:106

    Content type: Research

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  41. Previous research has shown that chronic disease case definitions constructed using population-based administrative health data may have low accuracy for ascertaining cases of episodic diseases such as rheumat...

    Authors: Allison Feely, Lily SH Lim, Depeng Jiang and Lisa M. Lix

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Tacrolimus is given post-kidney transplant to suppress the immune system, and the amount of drug in the body is measured frequently. Higher variability over time may be indicative of poor drug adherence, leadi...

    Authors: Kristen R. Campbell, Rui Martins, Scott Davis and Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research

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  43. Practical methods for facilitating process improvement are needed to support high quality, safe care. How best to specify (identify and define) process improvements – the changes that need to be made in a heal...

    Authors: Jan W. van der Scheer, Matthew Woodward, Akbar Ansari, Tim Draycott, Cathy Winter, Graham Martin, Karolina Kuberska, Natalie Richards, Ruth Kern and Mary Dixon-Woods

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:103

    Content type: Technical advance

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  44. Ninety-day hometime, the number of days a patient is living in the community in the first 90 after stroke, exhibits a non-normal bucket-shaped distribution, with lower and upper constraints making its analysis...

    Authors: Jessalyn K. Holodinsky, Amy Y. X. Yu, Moira K. Kapral and Peter C. Austin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:102

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are commonly conducted to evaluate and summarize medical literature. This is especially useful in assessing in vitro studies for consistency. Our study aims to ...

    Authors: Linh Tran, Dao Ngoc Hien Tam, Abdelrahman Elshafay, Thao Dang, Kenji Hirayama and Nguyen Tien Huy

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:101

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Advances in machine learning (ML) provide great opportunities in the prediction of hospital readmission. This review synthesizes the literature on ML methods and their performance for predicting hospital readm...

    Authors: Yinan Huang, Ashna Talwar, Satabdi Chatterjee and Rajender R. Aparasu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:96

    Content type: Research article

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