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  1. Content type: Research article

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP), bispectral index (BIS), and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) represent valuable, yet dynamic intraoperative monitoring variables. They provide information related to poor outc...

    Authors: Michael P. Schnetz, Harry S. Hochheiser, David J. Danks, Douglas P. Landsittel, Keith M. Vogt, James W. Ibinson, Steven L. Whitehurst, Sean P. McDermott, Melissa Giraldo Duque and Ata M. Kaynar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:17

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Patient reported outcomes are increasingly used to assess the success of surgical procedures. Patient reported complications are often included as an outcome. However, these data must be validated to be accura...

    Authors: Sung Mu Heo, Justine M. Naylor, Ian A. Harris and Timothy R. Churches

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:15

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Standard random-effects meta-analysis methods perform poorly when applied to few studies only. Such settings however are commonly encountered in practice. It is unclear, whether or to what extent small-sample-...

    Authors: Svenja E. Seide, Christian Röver and Tim Friede

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:16

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Longitudinal categorical variables are sometimes restricted in terms of how individuals transition between categories over time. For example, with a time-dependent measure of smoking categorised as never-smoke...

    Authors: Anurika Priyanjali De Silva, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Alysha Madhu De Livera, Katherine Jane Lee and Julie Anne Simpson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:14

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  5. Content type: Research article

    At the diabetic clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, health professionals provide regular follow-up to help people with diabetes live long and relatively healthy lives. Based on patient condition, ...

    Authors: Tafere Tilahun Aniley, Legesse Kassa Debusho, Zelalem Mehari Nigusie, Wondwosen Kassahun Yimer and Belay Birlie Yimer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:13

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are a pragmatic trial design, providing an unprecedented opportunity to increase the robustness of evidence underpinning implementation and quality improvement...

    Authors: Caroline A. Kristunas, Karla Hemming, Helen Eborall, Sandra Eldridge and Laura J. Gray

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:12

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The benefit of a given treatment can be evaluated via a randomized clinical trial design. However, protocol deviations may severely compromise treatment effect since such deviations often lead to missing value...

    Authors: Abdul-Karim Iddrisu and Freedom Gumedze

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:10

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  8. Content type: Debate

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are generally regarded as the “gold standard” for providing quantifiable evidence around the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new healthcare technologies. In order to...

    Authors: Matthew Franklin and Joanna Thorn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:8

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  9. Content type: Research article

    A key element in the interaction between clinicians and patients with cancer is reassurance giving. Learning about the stochastic nature of reassurances as well as making inferential statements about the influ...

    Authors: Valentin Popov, Alesha Ellis-Robinson and Gerald Humphris

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:11

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  10. Content type: Technical advance

    Observational burden of illness studies are used in pharmacoepidemiology to address a variety of objectives, including contextualizing the current treatment setting, identifying important treatment gaps, and p...

    Authors: Karissa M. Johnston, Pardis Lakzadeh, Bonnie M. K. Donato and Shelagh M. Szabo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:9

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Data are limited regarding how to effectively and efficiently identify patient priorities for research or clinical care. Our goal was to compare the comprehensiveness and efficiency of group concept mapping (G...

    Authors: Kristin L. Rising, Marianna LaNoue, Alexzandra T. Gentsch, Amanda M. B. Doty, Amy Cunningham, Brendan G. Carr, Judd E. Hollander, Lori Latimer, Larry Loebell, Gail Weingarten, Neva White and Geoffrey Mills

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:7

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  12. Content type: Research article

    There are significant challenges to the successful conduct of non-inferiority trials because they require large numbers to demonstrate that an alternative intervention is “not too much worse” than the standard...

    Authors: Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Reshma Jagsi, Jinani Jayasekera, Natasha K. Stout, Sandra A. Mitchell and Eric J. Feuer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:3

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Studies elucidating health-related information and special needs of Syrian migrants living in Germany are urgently required. However, data is scarce and finding appropriate sampling strategies to obtain repres...

    Authors: Tobias Weinmann, Amal AlZahmi, Andreas Schneck, Julian Felipe Mancera Charry, Günter Fröschl and Katja Radon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:5

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The Norwegian Tonsil Surgery Register (NTSR) was launched in January 2017. The purpose of the register is to present data on tonsil surgery to facilitate improvements in patient care. Data used for evaluating ...

    Authors: Siri Wennberg, Lasse A. Karlsen, Joacim Stalfors, Mette Bratt and Vegard Bugten

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:6

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  15. Content type: Research article

    In a randomised controlled trial, contamination is defined as the receipt of active intervention amongst participants in the control arm. This review assessed the processes leading to contamination, its typica...

    Authors: Nicholas Magill, Ruth Knight, Paul McCrone, Khalida Ismail and Sabine Landau

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:4

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Many epidemiological studies test trends when investigating the association between a risk factor and a disease outcome. Continuous exposures are commonly discretized when the outcome is nonlinearly related to...

    Authors: Naomi C. Brownstein and Jianwen Cai

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:2

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Mucosal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides offer protection against acquisition and carriage of encapsulated bacteria like Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. Measurements of salivary antibodies as repla...

    Authors: Mariëtte B. van Ravenhorst, Fiona R. M. van der Klis, Debbie M. van Rooijen, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders and Guy A. M. Berbers

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:1

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Although in recent years there has been a strong increase in published research on theories (e.g. realist evaluation, normalization process theory) driving and guiding process evaluations of complex interventi...

    Authors: P. Masterson-Algar, C. R. Burton and J. Rycroft-Malone

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:180

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The use of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk estimation scores in primary prevention has long been established. However, their performance still remains a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to explor...

    Authors: Alexandros C. Dimopoulos, Mara Nikolaidou, Francisco Félix Caballero, Worrawat Engchuan, Albert Sanchez-Niubo, Holger Arndt, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, Ekavi N. Georgousopoulou, Christos Pitsavos and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:179

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The concept of “mechanism” is central to realist approaches to research, yet research teams struggle to operationalize and apply the concept in empirical research. Our large, interdisciplinary research team ha...

    Authors: James Shaw, Carolyn Steele Gray, G. Ross Baker, Jean-Louis Denis, Mylaine Breton, Jennifer Gutberg, Gaya Embuldeniya, Peter Carswell, Annette Dunham, Ann McKillop, Timothy Kenealy, Nicolette Sheridan and Walter Wodchis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:178

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Exploring factors associated with retention in randomised trials provides insight into potential threats to internal and external study validity, and may inform the development of interventions to increase ret...

    Authors: Alexandra P. Metse, Nur Ashikin Noor Hizam, John Wiggers, Paula Wye and Jenny A. Bowman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:177

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Observational studies of medical interventions or risk factors are potentially biased by unmeasured confounding. In this paper we propose a Bayesian approach by defining an informative prior for the confounder...

    Authors: Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Inbal Shofty, Milica Miočević, Maarten van Smeden and Irene Klugkist

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:174

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the quality of data sources used to study cough and cold medication (CCM) safety in children via the Pediatric Cough and Cold Safety Surveillance System.

    Authors: Jody L. Green, Kate M. Reynolds, William Banner, G. Randall Bond, Ralph E. Kauffman, Robert B. Palmer, Ian M. Paul and Richard C. Dart

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:175

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  24. Content type: Research article

    In order to accurately measure and monitor levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults, cost efficient and valid instruments are required. To date, the ...

    Authors: Claire Cleland, Sara Ferguson, Geraint Ellis and Ruth F. Hunter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:176

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of scientific evidence, but successful participant recruitment is critical to ensure the external and internal validity of results. This study desc...

    Authors: Rachel L. Duckham, Jamie L. Tait, Caryl A. Nowson, Kerrie M. Sanders, Dennis R. Taaffe, Keith D. Hill and Robin M. Daly

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:173

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Missing data are common in tobacco studies. It is well known that from the observed data alone, it is impossible to distinguish between missing mechanisms such as missing at random (MAR) and missing not at ran...

    Authors: Yiwen Zhang, Xianghua Luo, Chap T. Le, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia and Janet L. Thomas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:170

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Little evidence is available on searches for non-randomized studies (NRS) in bibliographic databases within the framework of systematic reviews. For instance, it is currently unclear whether, when searching fo...

    Authors: Elke Hausner, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter, Fabian Lotz and Siw Waffenschmidt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:171

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Multiple imputation (MI) is now widely used to handle missing data in longitudinal studies. Several MI techniques have been proposed to impute incomplete longitudinal covariates, including standard fully condi...

    Authors: Md Hamidul Huque, John B. Carlin, Julie A. Simpson and Katherine J. Lee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:168

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Clinical trials are an essential part of evidence-based medicine. Hence, to ensure transparency and accountability in these clinical trials, policies for registration have been framed with emphasis on mandator...

    Authors: Victoria J. Serpas, Kanwal P. Raghav, Daniel M. Halperin, James Yao and Michael J. Overman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:169

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Workplace health interventions incorporating qualitative and quantitative components (mixed methods) within a Participatory Action Research approach can increase understanding of contextual issues ensuring rea...

    Authors: Marguerite C. Sendall, Laura K. McCosker, Alison Brodie, Melissa Hill and Phil Crane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:167

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cohorts often lack long-term survival data, and are summarized instead by initial treatment outcomes. When using Cox proportional hazards models to analyze these cohor...

    Authors: Meredith B. Brooks, Salmaan Keshavjee, Irina Gelmanova, Nataliya A. Zemlyanaya, Carole D. Mitnick and Justin Manjourides

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:166

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Studies based on high-quality linked data in developed countries show that even minor linkage errors, which occur when records of two different individuals are erroneously linked or when records belonging to t...

    Authors: Christopher T. Rentsch, Katie Harron, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd, Georges Reniers and Basia Zaba

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:165

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The SCL-90 and the SCL-90-R are the most applied measures regarding psychological distress. To reduce and prevent an overload to of the individuals, the Brief Symptom Inventory with 18 items (BSI-18) was devel...

    Authors: Katja Petrowski, Bjarne Schmalbach, Melanie Jagla, Gabriele Helga Franke and Elmar Brähler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:164

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  34. Content type: Study protocol

    Recent systematic reviews and editorials suggest that many organizations that produce nutritional guideline recommendations do not adhere to internationally recognized standards set forth by the Institute of M...

    Authors: Bradley C. Johnston, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Malgorzata M. Bala, Dena Zeraatkar, Montserrat Rabassa, Claudia Valli, Catherine Marshall, Regina El Dib, Robin W. M. Vernooij, Per O. Vandvik and Gordon H. Guyatt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:162

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The demand in biobanking for the collection and maintenance of biological specimens and personal data from civilians to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases has increased notably. Despit...

    Authors: Latifah Amin, Hasrizul Hashim, Zurina Mahadi and Khaidzir Ismail

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:163

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  36. Content type: Research article

    In Sweden, human tissue samples obtained from diagnostic and surgical procedures have for decades been routinely stored in a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, form. Through linkage with nationwide registers, ...

    Authors: Jessica Carlsson, Sabina Davidsson, Jonna Fridfeldt, Francesca Giunchi, Valentina Fiano, Chiara Grasso, Renata Zelic, Lorenzo Richiardi, Ove Andrén, Andreas Pettersson, Michelangelo Fiorentino and Olof Akre

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:161

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  37. Content type: Research article

    There is a high degree of variability in assessing the preventability of adverse drug events, limiting the ability to compare rates of preventable adverse drug events across different studies. We compared thre...

    Authors: Stephanie A. Woo, Amber Cragg, Maeve E. Wickham, David Peddie, Ellen Balka, Frank Scheuermeyer, Diane Villanyi and Corinne M. Hohl

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:160

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Biological assays for the quantification of markers may suffer from a lack of sensitivity and thus from an analytical detection limit. This is the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load. Below t...

    Authors: Perrine Soret, Marta Avalos, Linda Wittkop, Daniel Commenges and Rodolphe Thiébaut

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:159

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  39. Content type: Study protocol

    Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) is an important cause of disability and economic cost worldwide. There is a need for effective preventative and management strategies. Emerging studies measure a variety of outcomes re...

    Authors: Francesca Wuytack, Annelie Gutke, Britt Stuge, Siv Mørkved, Christina Olsson, Hilde Stendal Robinson, Nina K. Vøllestad, Birgitta Öberg, Lena Nilsson Wikmar, Juan Jose Saldaña Mena and Valerie Smith

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:158

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trials play an important role in modern evidence-based medicine. Advantages of collecting data from more than one site are numerous, including accelerated recruitmen...

    Authors: Markus Harden and Tim Friede

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:156

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) is a useful tool to investigate potential dose-response relationship between certain exposure or intervention and the outcome of interest. A large number of DRMAs have been p...

    Authors: Chang Xu, Tong-Zu Liu, Peng-Li Jia, Yu Liu, Ling Li, Liang-Liang Cheng and Xin Sun

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:157

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Declining participation rates are impeding health research. Little is known about factors influencing the decision to participate in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Therefore, this paper reports on th...

    Authors: Jennifer J. Ayoub, May Abiad, Michele R. Forman, Gladys Honein-AbouHaidar and Farah Naja

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:155

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are distillation of current best available evidence, but are potentially prone to bias. The bias of SRs and MAs comes from sampling bias, selection bias and wit...

    Authors: Xiao Sun, Xiaobin Zhou, Yan Yu and Haihua Liu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:154

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Ethnography has been proposed as a valuable method for understanding how implementation occurs within dynamic healthcare contexts, yet this method can be time-intensive and challenging to operationalize in pra...

    Authors: Erin P. Finley, Alexis K. Huynh, Melissa M. Farmer, Bevanne Bean-Mayberry, Tannaz Moin, Sabine M. Oishi, Jessica L. Moreau, Karen E. Dyer, Holly Jordan Lanham, Luci Leykum and Alison B. Hamilton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:153

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Participant retention strategies that minimise attrition in longitudinal cohort studies have evolved considerably in recent years. This study aimed to assess, via systematic review and meta-analysis, the effec...

    Authors: Samantha Teague, George J. Youssef, Jacqui A. Macdonald, Emma Sciberras, Adrian Shatte, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Chris Greenwood, Jennifer McIntosh, Craig A. Olsson and Delyse Hutchinson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:151

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  46. Content type: Technical advance

    We demonstrate an application of Group-Based Trajectory Modeling (GBTM) based on the beta distribution. It is offered as an alternative to the normal distribution for modeling continuous longitudinal data that...

    Authors: Jonathan Elmer, Bobby L. Jones and Daniel S. Nagin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:152

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory disorder in children. Although there are specific ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for bronchiolitis, the illness is often coded using broader diagnosis codes. This creates the po...

    Authors: Paul Walsh and Stephen J. Rothenberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:149

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is a research approach in which knowledge users (KUs) co-produce research. The rationale for IKT is that it leads to research that is more relevant and useful to KUs, the...

    Authors: Mary Ann O’Brien, Andrea Carson, Lisa Barbera, Melissa C. Brouwers, Craig C. Earle, Ian D. Graham, Nicole Mittmann and Eva Grunfeld

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:150

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Choosing a suitable sample size in qualitative research is an area of conceptual debate and practical uncertainty. That sample size principles, guidelines and tools have been developed to enable researchers to...

    Authors: Konstantina Vasileiou, Julie Barnett, Susan Thorpe and Terry Young

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:148

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