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  1. To measure the specific effectiveness of a given treatment in a randomised controlled trial, the intervention and control groups have to be similar in all factors not distinctive to the experimental treatment....

    Authors: D.’Alessandro Giandomenico, Ruffini Nuria, Aquino Alessandro, Galli Matteo, Innocenti Mattia, Tramontano Marco and Cerritelli Francesco
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:219
  2. Diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children in the emergency department (ED) is challenging due to the variable clinical presentations and difficulties in obtaining a urine sample free from contamin...

    Authors: Jessica A. Ramsay, Steven Mascaro, Anita J. Campbell, David A. Foley, Ariel O. Mace, Paul Ingram, Meredith L. Borland, Christopher C. Blyth, Nicholas G. Larkins, Tim Robertson, Phoebe C. M. Williams, Thomas L. Snelling and Yue Wu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:218
  3. Anchored covariate-adjusted indirect comparisons inform reimbursement decisions where there are no head-to-head trials between the treatments of interest, there is a common comparator arm shared by the studies...

    Authors: Antonio Remiro-Azócar
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:217
  4. Long-term prophylactic therapy is considered the standard of care for hemophilia A patients. This study models the long-term clinical and cost outcomes of two factor VIII (FVIII) products using a pharmacokinet...

    Authors: Rong Chen, Dmitry Gultyaev, Johanna Lister, Rong Han, Nan Hu, Jean Malacan, Alexander Solms, Parth Vashi, Jamie O’Hara and Shanlian Hu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:215
  5. Adolescent pregnancies and sexually-transmitted infections continue to impact 15 – 19-year-olds across the globe. The lack of sexual reproductive health information (SRH) in resource-limited settings due to cu...

    Authors: Paul Macharia, Antoni Pérez-Navarro, Irene Inwani, Ruth Nduati and Carme Carrion
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:213
  6. Models, theories, and frameworks (MTFs) provide the foundation for a cumulative science of implementation, reflecting a shared, evolving understanding of various facets of implementation. One under-represented...

    Authors: Justin Presseau, Danielle Kasperavicius, Isabel Braganca Rodrigues, Jessica Braimoh, Andrea Chambers, Cole Etherington, Lora Giangregorio, Jenna C. Gibbs, Anik Giguere, Ian D. Graham, Olena Hankivsky, Alison M. Hoens, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Christine Kelly, Julia E. Moore, Matteo Ponzano…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:212
  7. Hospital length of stay (LOS) is a key indicator of hospital care management efficiency, cost of care, and hospital planning. Hospital LOS is often used as a measure of a post-medical procedure outcome, as a g...

    Authors: Gustavo A. Fernandez and Kristina P. Vatcheva
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:211
  8. Prediction models for time-to-event outcomes are commonly used in biomedical research to obtain subject-specific probabilities that aid in making important clinical care decisions. There are several regression...

    Authors: Krithika Suresh, Cameron Severn and Debashis Ghosh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:207
  9. Variable selection for regression models plays a key role in the analysis of biomedical data. However, inference after selection is not covered by classical statistical frequentist theory, which assumes a fixe...

    Authors: Michael Kammer, Daniela Dunkler, Stefan Michiels and Georg Heinze
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:206
  10. Randomized test-treatment studies aim to evaluate the clinical utility of diagnostic tests by providing evidence on their impact on patient health. However, the sample size calculation is affected by several f...

    Authors: Amra Hot, Norbert Benda, Patrick M. Bossuyt, Oke Gerke, Werner Vach and Antonia Zapf
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:205
  11. When designing a noninferiority (NI) study one of the most important steps is to set the noninferiority (NI) limit. The NI limit is an acceptable loss of efficacy for a new investigative treatment compared to ...

    Authors: Enass M. Duro, Steven A. Julious and Shijie Ren
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:204
  12. Collecting new data from cross-sectional/survey and cohort observational study designs can be expensive and time-consuming. Nested (hierarchically cocooned within an existing parent study) and/or Multipart (≥ ...

    Authors: C. Christina Mehta, Kimberly S. Hagen, Lauren F. Collins, Renee’ H. Moore and Ighovwerha Ofotokun
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:203
  13. Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis has become a popular design to evaluate the effects of health interventions. However, the most common formulation for ITS, the linear segmented regression, is not always ...

    Authors: Daisuke Yoneoka, Takayuki Kawashima, Yuta Tanoue, Shuhei Nomura and Akifumi Eguchi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:202
  14. In recent years there is increasing interest in modeling the effect of early longitudinal biomarker data on future time-to-event or other outcomes. Sometimes investigators are also interested in knowing whethe...

    Authors: Feng Gao, Jingqin Luo, Jingxia Liu, Fei Wan, Guoqiao Wang, Mae Gordon and Chengjie Xiong
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:201
  15. We compared six commonly used logistic regression methods for accommodating missing risk factor data from multiple heterogeneous cohorts, in which some cohorts do not collect some risk factors at all, and deve...

    Authors: Matthias Neumair, Michael W. Kattan, Stephen J. Freedland, Alexander Haese, Lourdes Guerrios-Rivera, Amanda M. De Hoedt, Michael A. Liss, Robin J. Leach, Stephen A. Boorjian, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Cedric Poyet, Karim Saba, Kathleen Herkommer, Valentin H. Meissner, Andrew J. Vickers and Donna P. Ankerst
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:200
  16. Studying the relationship between unemployment and health raises many methodological challenges. In the current study, the aim was to evaluate the sensitivity of estimates based on different ways of measuring ...

    Authors: Fredrik Norström and Anne Hammarström
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:199
  17. The decision to initiate invasive long-term ventilation for a child with complex medical needs can be extremely challenging. TechChild is a research programme that aims to explore the liminal space between ini...

    Authors: Mary Brigid Quirke, Denise Alexander, Kate Masterson, Jo Greene, Cathal Walsh, Piet Leroy, Jay Berry, Lee Polikoff and Maria Brenner
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:198
  18. Linkage of public healthcare data provides powerful resources for studying from a comprehensive view of quality of care than information for a single administrative database. It is believed that positive patie...

    Authors: Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Chin-Man Poon, Annie Wai-Ling Cheung, Frank Youhua Chen and Eng-Kiong Yeoh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:197
  19. Multiple imputation is frequently used to address missing data when conducting statistical analyses. There is a paucity of research into the performance of multiple imputation when the prevalence of missing da...

    Authors: Peter C. Austin and Stef van Buuren
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:196
  20. We aimed to investigate factors related to the 90-day poor prognosis (mRS≥3) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, construct 90-day poor prognosis prediction models for patients wit...

    Authors: Si-Ding Chen, Jia You, Xiao-Meng Yang, Hong-Qiu Gu, Xin-Ying Huang, Huan Liu, Jian-Feng Feng, Yong Jiang and Yong-jun Wang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:195
  21. Group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) is increasingly used to identify subgroups of individuals with similar patterns. In this paper, we use simulated and real-life data to illustrate that GBTM is susceptibl...

    Authors: Miceline Mésidor, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Jennifer O’Loughlin and Marie-Pierre Sylvestre
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:194
  22. Meta-analysis is a central method for quality evidence generation. In particular, meta-analysis is gaining speedy momentum in the growing world of quantitative information. There are several software applicati...

    Authors: Safoora Masoumi and Saeid Shahraz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:193
  23. Meta-analyses of test accuracy studies may provide estimates that are highly improbable in clinical practice. Tailored meta-analysis produces plausible estimates for the accuracy of a test within a specific se...

    Authors: Karoline Freeman, Brian H. Willis, Ronan Ryan, Sian Taylor-Phillips and Aileen Clarke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:192
  24. The quality of communication between healthcare professionals (HCPs) and patients affects health outcomes. Different coding systems have been developed to unravel the interaction. Most schemes consist of prede...

    Authors: Inge Stortenbeker, Lisa Salm, Tim olde Hartman, Wyke Stommel, Enny Das and Sandra van Dulmen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:191
  25. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) using observational databases has been suggested to obtain personalized evidence of treatment effectiveness. Inferential difficulties remain using traditional CER appro...

    Authors: John M. Brooks, Cole G. Chapman, Sarah B. Floyd, Brian K. Chen, Charles A. Thigpen and Michael Kissenberth
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:190
  26. Methods for developing national recommendations vary widely. The successful adoption of new guidance into routine practice is dependent on buy-in from the clinicians delivering day-to-day patient care and must...

    Authors: John C. Hardman, Kevin Harrington, Tom Roques, Sanjai Sood, Jemy Jose, Shane Lester, Paul Pracy, Ricard Simo, Costa Repanos, Frank Stafford, Chris Jennings, Stuart C. Winter, Hugh Wheatly, Jarrod Homer, B. Nirmal Kumar and Vinidh Paleri
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:189
  27. The individual data collected throughout patient follow-up constitute crucial information for assessing the risk of a clinical event, and eventually for adapting a therapeutic strategy. Joint models and landma...

    Authors: Anthony Devaux, Robin Genuer, Karine Peres and Cécile Proust-Lima
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:188
  28. Due to contradictory results in current research, whether age at menopause is increasing or decreasing in Western countries remains an open question, yet worth studying as later ages at menopause are likely to...

    Authors: Rui Martins, Bruno de Sousa, Thomas Kneib, Maike Hohberg, Nadja Klein, Elisa Duarte and Vítor Rodrigues
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:187
  29. Increasingly in network meta-analysis (NMA), there is a need to incorporate non-randomised evidence to estimate relative treatment effects, and in particular in cases with limited randomised evidence, sometime...

    Authors: Janharpreet Singh, Sandro Gsteiger, Lorna Wheaton, Richard D. Riley, Keith R. Abrams, Clare L. Gillies and Sylwia Bujkiewicz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:186
  30. The purpose of this study is to describe and assess a remote height and weight protocol that was developed for an ongoing trial conducted during the SARS COV-2 pandemic.

    Authors: Bethany Forseth, Ann M. Davis, Dana M. Bakula, Megan Murray, Kelsey Dean, Rebecca E. Swinburne Romine and Kandace Fleming
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:185
  31. Systematic reviews can apply the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II tool to critically appraise clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for treating low back pain (LBP); however, when app...

    Authors: Silvia Gianola, Silvia Bargeri, Michela Cinquini, Valerio Iannicelli, Roberto Meroni and Greta Castellini
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:184
  32. Our study aimed to identify predictors as well as develop machine learning (ML) models to predict the risk of 30-day mortality in patients with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE).

    Authors: Liwei Peng, Chi Peng, Fan Yang, Jian Wang, Wei Zuo, Chao Cheng, Zilong Mao, Zhichao Jin and Weixin Li
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:183
  33. Discharge medical notes written by physicians contain important information about the health condition of patients. Many deep learning algorithms have been successfully applied to extract important information...

    Authors: Hongxia Lu, Louis Ehwerhemuepha and Cyril Rakovski
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:181
  34. The need to engage adults, age 65 and older, in clinical trials of conditions typical in older populations, (e.g. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia) is exponentially inc...

    Authors: Harriet Fisher, Sondra Zabar, Joshua Chodosh, Aisha Langford, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Scott Sherman and Lisa Altshuler
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:180
  35. To optimize colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and surveillance, information regarding the time-dependent risk of advanced adenomas (AA) to develop into CRC is crucial. However, since AA are removed after diagn...

    Authors: Eddymurphy U. Akwiwu, Thomas Klausch, Henriette C. Jodal, Beatriz Carvalho, Magnus Løberg, Mette Kalager, Johannes Berkhof and Veerle M. H. Coupé
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:179
  36. Implementation science in healthcare aims to understand how to get evidence into practice. Once this is achieved in one setting, it becomes increasingly difficult to replicate elsewhere. The problem is often a...

    Authors: Mitchell N. Sarkies, Emilie Francis-Auton, Janet C. Long, Chiara Pomare, Rebecca Hardwick and Jeffrey Braithwaite
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:178
  37. Accurate measurement of trajectories in longitudinal studies, considered the gold standard method for tracking functional growth during adolescence, decline in aging, and change after head injury, is subject t...

    Authors: Edith V. Sullivan, Wesley K. Thompson, Ty Brumback, Devin Prouty, Susan F. Tapert, Sandra A. Brown, Michael D. De Bellis, Kate B. Nooner, Fiona C. Baker, Ian M. Colrain, Duncan B. Clark, Bonnie J. Nagel, Kilian M. Pohl and Adolf Pfefferbaum
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:177
  38. A lack of available data and statistical code being published alongside journal articles provides a significant barrier to open scientific discourse, and reproducibility of research. Information governance res...

    Authors: Aiden Smith, Paul C. Lambert and Mark J. Rutherford
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:176
  39. Normalization process theory (NPT) has been widely used to better understand how new interventions are implemented and embedded. The NoMAD (Normalization Measurement Development questionnaire) is a 23-item NPT...

    Authors: Larkin Lamarche, Rebecca E. Clark, Fiona Parascandalo and Dee Mangin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:175
  40. Sustainable Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virological suppression is crucial to achieving the Joint United Nations Programme of HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 95–95-95 treatment targets to reduce the risk of onward HI...

    Authors: Adenike O. Soogun, Ayesha B. M. Kharsany, Temesgen Zewotir, Delia North and Ropo Ebenezer Ogunsakin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:174
  41. The concept of standard of care (SoC) treatment is commonly utilized in clinical trials. However, in a setting of an emergent disease, such as COVID-19, where there is no established effective treatment, it is...

    Authors: Mahir Fidahic, Danijela Nujic, Marta Civljak, Renata Runjic, Filipa Markotic, Marin Vidak and Livia Puljak
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:173
  42. The NINDS rt-PA Stroke Study is frequently cited in support of alteplase for acute ischemic stroke within 3 h of symptom onset. Multiple post-hoc reanalyses of this trial have been published to adjust for a ba...

    Authors: Ravi Garg and Steffen Mickenautsch
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:172
  43. To summarize the up-to-date empirical evidence on trial-level characteristics of randomized controlled trials associated with treatment effect estimates.

    Authors: Huan Wang, Jinlu Song, Yali Lin, Wenjie Dai, Yinyan Gao, Lang Qin, Yancong Chen, Wilson Tam, Irene XY Wu and Vincent CH Chung
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:171
  44. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and debilitating mental disorder always considered one of the recurrent psychiatric diseases. This study aimed to use penalized count regression models to determine factors ...

    Authors: Mahya Arayeshgari, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Ali Ghaleiha, Jalal Poorolajal and Leili Tapak
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:170

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