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Table 1 A suggested cross-cultural adaptation process

From: Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations

Investigation of conceptual and item equivalence Literature review
Discussion with experts in the field and members of target population
Original instrument translated Translator I:
Fluent in target language, good understanding of original language
  Translator II:
Fluent in target language, good understanding of original language
A synthesized translated version Translator III:
Fluent in target language, good understanding of original language
Back-translations Back-translator I:
Fluent in original language, good understanding of target language
  Back-translator II:
Fluent in original language, good understanding of target language
A synthesized back-translated version Back-translator III:
Fluent in original language, good understanding of target language
Expert committee  
Instrument pretested  
Revised instrument  
Investigation of operational equivalence Literature review
Discussions with experts in the field and members of target population
Main study  
Exploratory and confirmatory analysis  
Final instrument