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Table 1 Sequence of models concerning the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): A) One-dimensional Confirmatory Factor Analysis; B) Exploratory/Confirmatory Factor Analysis (E/CFA); C) Three-factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis; D) Bifactor model: three specific factors plus a general (g) factor.

From: Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor

  Model A
1-factor CFA
Model B
3-factor - E/CFA
Model C
3-factor CFA
Model D
Bifactor model
  Factor 1   Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3   Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3   Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 g-factor  
  λ i (1) a δ i b λ i (1) λ i (2) λ i (3) δ i λ i (1) λ i (2) λ i (3) δ i λ i (1) λ i (2) λ i (3) λ i ( G ) δ i
i1 .74 (.70; .79) .45 .81 (.47; 1.0) .05 (-.23; .37) -.02 (-.19; .16) 0.30 .82 (.77; .86)    .33 .48 (.25; .72)    .68 (.62; .74) .30
i2 .71 (.66; .76) .49 .83 (.66; 1.0) -.03 (-.15; .1) .01 (-.18; .21) 0.33 .78 (.73; .83)    .39 .50 (.26; .74)    .65 (.59; .71) .33
i6 .59 (.54; .65) .64 .31 (.15; .48) .28 (.04; .52) .08 (-.16; .31) .63 .65 (.59; .70)    .58 .14 (.04; .24)    .52 (.45; .59) .63
i3 .53 (.47; .59) .72 .00 (-.04; .04) .68 (.39; .97) -.07 (-.37; .23) .61   .60 (.53; .67)   .64   .25 (.10; .40)   .51 (.45; .58) .67
i4 .53 (.48; .59) .715 -.07 (-.29; .15) .67 (.40; .94) .01 (-.18; .20) .61   .61 (.55; .67)   .63   .46 (.19; .72)   .63 (.56; .70) .53
i5 .64 (.58; .70) .59 .11 (-.10; .33) .61 (.40; .83) .01 (-.14; .15) .52   .74 (.68; .80)   .46   .31 (.13; .48)   .59 (.53; .65) .50
i7 .82 (.77; .86) .33 .01 (-.08; .10) .145 (-.08; .37) .70 (.51; .89) .31    .84 (.80; .88) .30    .17 (-.02; .35) .81 (.75; .88) .31
i8 .80 (.77; .84) .35 .05 (-.09; .18) .01 (-.04; .06) .78 (.66; .90) .32    .83 (.79; .87) .31    .24 (.03; .46) .78 (.72; .84) .33
i9 .81 (.78; .85) .34 -.01 (-.07; .05) -.15 (-.46; .15) .99 (.74; 1.00) .24    .84 (.80; .88) .30    .45 (.22; .68) .77 (.71; .83) .20
i10 .68 (.60; .76) .54 .03 (-.18; .24) .06 (-.27; .40) .62 (.31; .93) .52    .70 (.62; .78) .51    .17 (-.06; .40) .67 (.57; .77) .52
f1 f2 c - - - .66 (.47; .86)   .74 (.67; .81)   0  
f1 f3 - - - .75 (.63; .87)   .80 (.76; .85)   0  
f2 f3 - - - .82 (.69; .94)   .81 (.74; .87)   0  
RMSEA d .081 (.071; .091) .037 (.019; .053)   .037 (.024; .049)   .026 (.005; .041)  
CFI e .963 .996   .993   .997  
TLI f .953 .991   .990   .995  
  1. a Loadings (standardized). In brackets: 95% confidence intervals. b Measurement errors (uniqueness). c Factors correlation; in brackets: 95% confidence intervals. d RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. in brackets: 90% confidence intervals. e CFI = Comparative Fit Index. f TLI = Tucker-Lewis Index.
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