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Table 1 Sequence of models concerning the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): A) One-dimensional Confirmatory Factor Analysis; B) Exploratory/Confirmatory Factor Analysis (E/CFA); C) Three-factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis; D) Bifactor model: three specific factors plus a general (g) factor.

From: Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor

 

Model A

1-factor CFA

Model B

3-factor - E/CFA

Model C

3-factor CFA

Model D

Bifactor model

 

Factor 1

 

Factor 1

Factor 2

Factor 3

 

Factor 1

Factor 2

Factor 3

 

Factor 1

Factor 2

Factor 3

g-factor

 
 

λ i (1) a

δ i b

λ i (1)

λ i (2)

λ i (3)

δ i

λ i (1)

λ i (2)

λ i (3)

δ i

λ i (1)

λ i (2)

λ i (3)

λ i ( G )

δ i

i1

.74 (.70; .79)

.45

.81 (.47; 1.0)

.05 (-.23; .37)

-.02 (-.19; .16)

0.30

.82 (.77; .86)

  

.33

.48 (.25; .72)

  

.68 (.62; .74)

.30

i2

.71 (.66; .76)

.49

.83 (.66; 1.0)

-.03 (-.15; .1)

.01 (-.18; .21)

0.33

.78 (.73; .83)

  

.39

.50 (.26; .74)

  

.65 (.59; .71)

.33

i6

.59 (.54; .65)

.64

.31 (.15; .48)

.28 (.04; .52)

.08 (-.16; .31)

.63

.65 (.59; .70)

  

.58

.14 (.04; .24)

  

.52 (.45; .59)

.63

i3

.53 (.47; .59)

.72

.00 (-.04; .04)

.68 (.39; .97)

-.07 (-.37; .23)

.61

 

.60 (.53; .67)

 

.64

 

.25 (.10; .40)

 

.51 (.45; .58)

.67

i4

.53 (.48; .59)

.715

-.07 (-.29; .15)

.67 (.40; .94)

.01 (-.18; .20)

.61

 

.61 (.55; .67)

 

.63

 

.46 (.19; .72)

 

.63 (.56; .70)

.53

i5

.64 (.58; .70)

.59

.11 (-.10; .33)

.61 (.40; .83)

.01 (-.14; .15)

.52

 

.74 (.68; .80)

 

.46

 

.31 (.13; .48)

 

.59 (.53; .65)

.50

i7

.82 (.77; .86)

.33

.01 (-.08; .10)

.145 (-.08; .37)

.70 (.51; .89)

.31

  

.84 (.80; .88)

.30

  

.17 (-.02; .35)

.81 (.75; .88)

.31

i8

.80 (.77; .84)

.35

.05 (-.09; .18)

.01 (-.04; .06)

.78 (.66; .90)

.32

  

.83 (.79; .87)

.31

  

.24 (.03; .46)

.78 (.72; .84)

.33

i9

.81 (.78; .85)

.34

-.01 (-.07; .05)

-.15 (-.46; .15)

.99 (.74; 1.00)

.24

  

.84 (.80; .88)

.30

  

.45 (.22; .68)

.77 (.71; .83)

.20

i10

.68 (.60; .76)

.54

.03 (-.18; .24)

.06 (-.27; .40)

.62 (.31; .93)

.52

  

.70 (.62; .78)

.51

  

.17 (-.06; .40)

.67 (.57; .77)

.52

f1 f2 c

- - -

.66 (.47; .86)

 

.74 (.67; .81)

 

0

 

f1 f3

- - -

.75 (.63; .87)

 

.80 (.76; .85)

 

0

 

f2 f3

- - -

.82 (.69; .94)

 

.81 (.74; .87)

 

0

 

RMSEA d

.081 (.071; .091)

.037 (.019; .053)

 

.037 (.024; .049)

 

.026 (.005; .041)

 

CFI e

.963

.996

 

.993

 

.997

 

TLI f

.953

.991

 

.990

 

.995

 
  1. a Loadings (standardized). In brackets: 95% confidence intervals. b Measurement errors (uniqueness). c Factors correlation; in brackets: 95% confidence intervals. d RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. in brackets: 90% confidence intervals. e CFI = Comparative Fit Index. f TLI = Tucker-Lewis Index.