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Table 2 FEE-US item and scale characteristics

From: An ultra-short screening version of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE-US) and its factor structure in a representative German sample

Scale item M (SD) Response frequencies
    Never Occasionally Often Always
Father – Rejection & punishment (Factor 1) 2.7 (1.06)     
  01 Have you been punished hard by your father, even for trifles (small offenses)? 1.5 (0.69) 59% 32% 8% 1%
  18 Did it happen that your father gave you corporal punishment without reason? 1.2 (0.53) 82% 14% 3% 1%
Father - Emotional warmth (Factor 2) 4.2 (1.49)     
  15 Has your father comforted you when you were sad? 2.2 (0.81) 20% 47% 27% 6%
  24 Was your father able to smooch with you? 2.0 (0.85) 29% 45% 20% 6%
Father – Control & overprotection (Factor 3) 3.3 (1.16)     
  11 Did your father spur you to become the best? 1.8 (0.83) 46% 35% 15% 4%
  23 Do you think that your father’s anxiety that something might happen to you was exaggerated? 1.5 (0.67) 58% 34% 7% 1%
Mother – Rejection & punishment (Factor 1) 2.5 (0.90)     
  01 Have you been punished hard by your mother, even for trifles (small offenses)? 1.4 (0.62) 70% 24% 5% 1%
  18 Did it happen that your mother gave you corporal punishment without reason? 1.1 (0.44) 89% 8% 2% 1%
Mother - Emotional Warmth (Factor 2) 5.3 (1.42)     
  15 Has your mother comforted you when you were sad? 2.7 (0.77) 6% 31% 50% 13%
  24 Was your mother able to smooch with you? 2.6 (0.83) 9% 34% 44% 13%
Mother - Control & overprotection (Factor 3) 3.6 (1.29)     
  11 Did your mother spur you to become the best? 1.7 (0.79) 49% 35% 13% 3%
  23 Do you think that your mother’s anxiety that something might happen to you was exaggerated? 1.9 (0.84) 39% 39% 18% 4%
  1. Note. N = 4,640. Item numbering according to Schumacher et al. [1,2], item translations by the authors according to Arrindell et al. [9]. Mean range is 1 - 4, with lower/ higher scores indicating refusal / stronger approval. Non-normality tests of skewness and kurtosis: *** p < .001, ** p < .01. W = Shapiro-Wilk test of normality.