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Table 6 Substance use of participants who responded to the custom research company hired at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (T4-easy-to-recruit), participants who responded after extra recruitment effort of the TRAILS research team (T4-hard-to-recruit), participants who did not respond at the fourth wave but did participate in the third wave (non-responder T4) and of participants who had dropped out from TRAILS prior to the fourth wave (drop-out since T2 or T3)

From: Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

  T4-easy-to-recruit (ref.) T4-hard-to-recruit Non-responder T4 Drop-out since T2 or T3
  n(%) n(%) OR 95% CI n(%) OR 95% CI n(%) OR 95% CI
Lifetime substance use
T2 Tobacco lifetime prevalence 533 (33.7) 107 (44.0) 1.55* 1.18-2.03 62 (50.8) 2.03* 1.40-2.94 56 (39.7) 1.30 0.91-1.84
T2 Alcohol lifetime prevalence 1,162 (73.9) 194 (79.8) 1.40* 1.00-1.95 92 (76.7) 1.16 0.75-1.80 103 (72.5) 0.93 0.64-1.37
T2 Cannabis lifetime prevalence 100 (6.3) 28 (11.6) 1.94* 1.25-3.02 11 (9.3) 1.52 0.79-2.92 14 (10.1) 1.65 0.92-2.98
T3 Tobacco lifetime prevalence 819 (57.1) 89 (70.6) 1.81* 1.21-2.69 69 (70.4) 1.79* 1.14-2.79 -   
T3 Alcohol lifetime prevalence 1,345 (93.9) 125 (98.4) 4.04 0.98-16.62 92 (93.9) 0.99 0.42-2.33 -   
T3 Cannabis lifetime prevalence 439 (30.7) 45 (35.4) 1.24 0.85-1.81 35 (36.5) 1.29 0.84-1.99 -   
T4 Tobacco lifetime prevalence 1,153 (72.7) 100 (81.3) 1.64* 1.03-2.61 -    -   
T4 Alcohol lifetime prevalence 1,146 (98.2) 121 (99.2) 2.27 0.31-16.81 -    -   
T4 Cannabis lifetime prevalence 841 (53.1) 66 (55.0) 1.08 0.75-1.57 -    -   
  1. *p < .05; Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression analyses; n varies between 2,074 and 2,087 (T2), 1,651 and 1,658 (T3), and 1,697 and 1,710 (T4).