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Table 7 Psychopathology of participants who responded to the custom research company hired at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (T4-easy-to-recruit), participants who responded after extra recruitment effort of the TRAILS research team (T4-hard-to-recruit), participants who did not respond at the fourth wave but did participate in the third wave (non-responder T4) and of participants who had dropped out from TRAILS prior to the fourth wave (drop-out since T2 or T3)

From: Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

     T4-easy-to-recruit (ref.)    T4-hard-to-recruit    Non-responder T4    Drop-out since T2 or T3
  Mean ( SD ) Mean ( SDs ) OR 95% CI Mean ( SD ) OR 95% CI Mean ( SD ) OR 95% CI
Psychopathology
T1 CBCL Int. 0.24 (0.19) 0.24 (0.21) 0.97 0.85-1.12 0.24 (0.19) 0.97 0.80-1.17 0.27 (0.21) 1.11 0.96-1.29
T1 CBCL Ext 0.22 (0.19) 0.29 (0.21) 1.37* 1.21-1.56 0.31 (0.26) 1.46* 1.24-1.71 0.29 (0.24) 1.36* 1.18-1.57
T1 CBCL Total 0.24 (0.16) 0.27 (0.18) 1.22* 1.07-1.39 0.28 (0.20) 1.27* 1.07-1.50 0.28 (0.19) 1.30* 1.13-1.51
T2 CBCL Int 0.20 (0.18) 0.19 (0.17) 0.95 0.82-1.10 0.20 (0.18) 1.02 0.83-1.25 0.22 (0.21) 1.15 0.97-1.37
T2 CBCL Ext 0.16 (0.18) 0.21 (0.21) 1.30* 1.14-1.47 0.22 (0.27) 1.35* 1.13-1.60 0.20 (0.20) 1.23* 1.03-1.46
T2 CBCL Total 0.18 (0.15) 0.20 (0.16) 1.16* 1.02-1.33 0.21 (0.18) 1.24* 1.03-1.49 0.21 (0.17) 1.22* 1.02-1.45
T3 CBCL Int 0.19 (0.19) 0.21 (0.20) 1.11 0.94-1.32 0.17 (0.18) 0.89 0.67-1.19 -   
T3 CBCL Ext 0.16 (0.18) 0.27 (0.27) 1.49* 1.29-1.72 0.20 (0.24) 1.19 0.94-1.50 -   
T3 CBCL Total 0.17 (0.15) 0.23 (0.19) 1.39* 1.19-1.62 0.19 (0.19) 1.14 0.90-1.46 -   
T1 YSR Int 0.37 (0.24 0.33 (0.21) 0.84* 0.73-0.96 0.34 (0.24) 0.87 0.72-1.05 0.36 (0.26) 0.94 0.81-1.09
T1 YSR Ext 0.27 (0.19) 0.28 (0.20) 1.07 0.94-1.21 0.27 (0.22) 1.03 0.86-1.23 0.29 (0.21) 1.10 0.95-1.26
T1 YSR Total 0.34 (0.19) 0.33 (0.18) 0.92 0.80-1.05 0.33 (0.19) 0.95 0.79-1.14 0.34 (0.21) 0.99 0.86-1.14
T2 YSR Int 0.34 (0.24) 0.29 (0.24) 0.82* 0.71-0.95 0.30 (0.25) 0.83 0.68-1.02 0.30 (0.26) 0.85 0.71-1.03
T2 YSR Ext 0.28 (0.19) 0.31 (0.21) 1.15* 1.01-1.31 0.30 (0.23) 1.09 0.91-1.31 0.28 (0.23) 1.01 0.85-1.21
T2 YSR Total 0.33 (0.18) 0.32 (0.19) 0.96 0.84-1.11 0.31 (0.19) 0.90 0.74-1.09 0.31 (0.20) 0.87 0.73-1.05
T3 YSR Int 0.32 (0.25) 0.26 (0.23) 0.75* 0.60-0.92 0.30 (0.25) 0.94 0.76-1.16 -   
T3 YSR Ext 0.31 (0.21) 0.36 (0.22) 1.25* 1.06-1.48 0.38 (0.25) 1.36* 1.13-1.64 -   
T3 YSR Total 0.33 (0.18) 0.32 (0.17) 0.94 0.78-1.14 0.35 (0.18) 1.10 0.90-1.35 -   
T4 ASR Int 0.25 (0.25) 0.26 (0.27) 1.04 0.86-1.26 -    -   
T4 ASR Ext 0.23 (0.21) 0.25 (0.24) 1.09 0.87-1.36 -    -   
T4 ASR Total 0.28 (0.21) 0.31 (0.25) 1.15 0.92-1.43 -    -   
  n(%) n(%) OR 95% CI       
CIDI T4: Int. diagnosis 646 (42.9) 37 (48.1) 1.30 0.78-1.95 -    -   
CIDI T4: Ext. diagnosis 540 (35.8) 39 (50.6) 1.84* 1.16-2.91 -    -   
CIDI T4: Total problem diagnosis 917 (60.8) 53 (68.8) 1.42 0.87-2.33 -    -   
  1. *p < .05; Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from single multinomial logistic regression analyses (T1, T2 and T3 predictors) and single binary logistic regression analyses (T4 predictors); CBCL = Child Behavior Checklist (parent report); YSR = Youth Self Report; ASR = Adult Self Report; CBCL, YSR and ASR were assessed on a 0–2 scale, but were standardized for analyses. CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview; Int = Internalizing; Ext = Externalizing; continuous variables (CBCL, YSR, ASR) standardized in regression analyses; n varies between 2,044 and 2,055 (T1 CBCL), 1,901 and 1,924 (T2 CBCL), 1,494 and 1,507 (T3 CBCL), 2,170 and 2,188 (T1 YSR), 2,081 and 2,092 (T2 YSR), 1,636 and 1,660 (T3 YSR), 1,654 and 1,691 (T4 ASR), and 1,584 (T4 CIDI).